教育學報



探討香港津貼學校公積金的運作和策略

1994.第22卷第2期(Vol. 22 No. 2).pp. 267–277

 

探討香港津貼學校公積金的運作和策略

A Study of Hong Kong Subsidized Schools Provident Fund

馬慶堂(Hing-Tong MA)

摘要

教育的開支中,教師薪酬一般來說均超過七成半,因此教師薪酬的變動往往牽涉鉅額的公帑;另一方面,教育是一項勞力密集的行業,教師薪酬的改變是影響著數以萬計的教師。對教育決策者來說不單考慮開支承擔問題,還要顧及教師的反應,士氣和供求問題等。故此對教育決策者釐訂教育開支時,教師薪酬是一項重要的決策變數(policy variable)(Woodhall, 1985)。

公積金作為教師薪酬的一部份,其影響是與薪酬不可分割的,因此本文首先看一看教師薪酬與教師工作的密切關係,其次會搜集其他國家類似香港教師公積金的計劃,研究其異同之處。然後,以過往公積金的資料 (最近十年為主),探討其管理架構、投資策略、運作形式和穩健程度等狀況,作較詳細而有系統的剖析,從而作出討論和建議。

Abstract

In the expenditure of education, teachers' salaries usually represent at least 75 percent of the total current costs of education. This indicates that teachers' pay are likely to exert a strong influence on the level of total expenditure. On the other hand, education is a labour enterprise, the effect of teachers' salaries has considerable bearing on the future costs of educational investment. Moreover, the issue of teachers' salaries is not only the cost of education, it is also a means to recruit and retain high-quality teachers, to balance the supply and demand of teachers, to raise the level of teachers' morale. Woodhall (1985) speculated that the salary of teaching force is an important policy variable.

In Hong Kong, provident fund as an important part of teachers' salary, the amount of provident fund is undoubtedly one of the main factors for the educational policymaker in calculating the costs of education. This paper examines recent trends in provident fund in subsidized schools. The first part of this paper will review the relationship between teachers' salaries and the teaching profession. Next, there is a brief review of policy and similar scheme of teaching force in six European countries. And then, a study on Hong Kong subsidized schools provident fund in different aspects — the management structure, the investment strategy, the operating condition and the degree of stability etc. Lastly, results of the analysis and discussions will be presented in the final part of this paper.