教育學報



儒家的道德教育理論之現代詮釋與意義

1994.第21卷第2期及第22卷第1期(Vol. 21 No. 2 & Vol. 22 No. 1).pp. 75–85

 

儒家的道德教育理論之現代詮釋與意義

A Reappraisal and Modern Interpretation of Confucian Theory of Moral Education

李瑞全(Shui-Chuen LEE)

摘要

本文借用奇亞生論述西方當代道德教育理論的架構,詮釋儒家的道德理論,藉以展示傳統儒家的理論所具有的現代意義。在道德哲學方面,儒家以仁心為道德價值之根源,具體呈現為個體之良知良能,發而為人間社會的普遍道德原則;不忍人之心乃即實踐理性,它所直接表示的是一道德的指向,此指向落實而為人際間的道德守則,後者不可免帶有所屬的特定的歷史文化背景,由此而有特定的內容和僵化的情況;儒家基本上通過不忍人之心對一般道德守則的僵化作出興革更新,以保持仁心人道不致受歪曲。對於理智與知識,儒家確認其具有輔助作用,但也表明可以有智及而不能仁守的情況。在道德教育方面,儒家以聖人為道德的理想人格,而此人格的培養自是以啟發為主,反對教條灌輸。在教育的施行上,儒家的教師是一啟發者,也是一以身作則的實踐者,而教學方法則基本上以因材施教,啟發化育為主,務求學生自行得之。而在師生關係上,儒家提升為一種非常親密的倫常關係,學校則可視為一倫理組織,此既可促進道德教育的果效,又可補救現代師生關係之商業化和異化。

Abstract

This paper employs Chazan's theoretical framework which he uses for his explication and comparison of modern western theories of moral edueation and gives a modern interpretation of Confucian theory of moral education. The basic tenet of Confucian moral philosophy lies with the recognition of the jen-hsin (the mind of benevolence, or moral conscience) as the origin and ultimate ground of morality. This moral conscience is the practical reason which manifests directly as the conscience of the individual and codified as the fundamental moral principles of a society. The latter carries with it definite contents bearing the specific historical and cultural ground of its time and thus could not avoid the problem of becoming a kind of doctrine. The Confucian solution for this problem is the revoking of the original moral mind. The auxiliary function of theoretical reasoning and knowledge is fully acknowledged but they could not be regarded as sufficient for any moral act by themselves. The commitment of the moral mind is essential. The Confuican morally educated man is the sage and it could be achieved only through various methods for the enlightenment of the individual but not by indoctrination. Lastly, the confucian conceptions of the ethical relationship between teacher and student, and that school as an ethnical community are explored in relation to moral education and as a solution to the externalisation and alienation of teacher and student relation in the modern world.