教育學報



香港的教育分層、學校擴張與公共政策

1994.第21卷第2期及第22卷第1期(Vol. 21 No. 2 & Vol. 22 No. 1).pp. 29–42

 

香港的教育分層、學校擴張與公共政策

Educational Stratification, School Expansion, and Public Policy in Hong Kong

David POST

摘要

擴展教育,香港政府這一公共政策如何改變家庭資源、性別、就學率之間的相互關係?一九七零年代,政府開始介入原本是私營的教育制度,一九七一年,政府推行強迫的免費小學教育;一九七八年,這項強迫的免費教育伸延至中三。本文旨在探討政府刻意進行免費的中學教育對教育分層化的影響,從一九七六、一九八一和一九八六的人口普查的數據,可以看擴展教育的政策,本文採用了三個指標。這些指標和性別和家庭背景的相互關係,反映了教育分層化的結果。證據顯示,擴展教育令小童繼續就讀中學的機會有很大的影響。從此家庭收入不再是問題。免費教育也對小童有重大的影響。

Abstract

How does a public policy to expand school enrollment rates alter the joint relationships between family resources, gender, and educational attainment? The 1970s were a period of increased state action in Hong Kong's previously privatized education system. In I971, primary schooling was made free and compulsory for children; in 1978 free and compulsory education was extended to the first three years of secondary school. This article examines the consequences for educational stratification of the deliberate expansion of secondary school participation. Using census samples from 1976, 1981, and 1986, children's school continuations to the lower- and upper- secondary levels are predicted on the basis of their family resources and gender. As measures of the policy to expand education, three alternative indicators are entered in the model. The interactions of these indicators with gender and family background demonstrate their consequences for educational stratification. Hong Kong's expansion of education, the evidence suggests, had a substantial impact on the ability of children to continue to secondary school, regardless of family income. The effects of free schooling were also especially pronounced for girls.