教育學報



幼兒教保服務人員工作壓力與工作壓力因應策略量表信、效度及潛在影響關係之檢驗

2020.第48卷第1期(Vol. 48 No. 1).pp. 109–130

 

幼兒教保服務人員工作壓力與工作壓力因應策略量表信、效度及潛在影響關係之檢驗

Examining the Reliability and Validity of Scales of Job Stress and Stress-coping Strategies for Early Childhood Education and Care Staff and Their Latent Effects

彭佩貞、吳中勤(Pei-Chen PENG & Chung-Chin WU)

摘要

回顧工作壓力與工作壓力因應策略的相關研究,可發現當前相關研究存在的四個主要問題:測量的精簡性與效度不足,忽略工作壓力對工作壓力因應各向度間不一致的影響關係,較少檢視幼兒園師生比對工作壓力與工作壓力因應間關係的影響,以及在運用統計分析方法上的限制。有鑑於此,本研究分別以192位和208位幼兒教保服務人員為預試和正式研究對象,採用驗證性因素分析與結構方程模式取向的潛在調節效果分析,主要目的在於修訂工作壓力與工作壓力因應策略量表,提供建構效度證據,並進一步探究班級師生比對幼兒教保服務人員工作壓力與工作壓力因應策略間關係的影響。本研究發現:(1)10題精簡版四向度工作壓力量表與9題精簡版三向度工作壓力因應策略量表,能以少於過去相關測量一半以上的題項,提供良好的信度和建構效度;(2)不同工作壓力來源對不同因應策略具有不一致的影響;(3)低師生比反而會加劇部分工作壓力對因應策略的負向影響,與過去研究發現大相逕庭。本研究於文末根據研究結果,針對未來研究與教學實務,分別提出相應建議。

關鍵詞:工作壓力;工作壓力因應策略;幼兒教保服務人員;師生比;潛在調節效果

Abstract

After reviewing the literature related to job stress and stress-coping strategies, four problems were found: (a) low parsimony and validity of their measurements; (b) ignoring inconsistent relationships among different dimensions of job stress and stress-coping strategies; (c) few researches examining the effect of teacher-student ratio on these relationships; (d) the limitations of statistical analysis methods. As a result, this study recruited 192 and 208 early childhood education and care staff as pre-survey and formal survey subjects respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis and latent moderation analysis were conducted. The main purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to revise the scales of job stress and stress-coping strategies for early childhood education and care staff, and to provide evidences for reliability and validity; (b) to investigate the effect of teacher-student ratio on the relationships among job stress and stress-coping strategies. Results showed that: (a) ten-item and nine-item short version of four dimensional job stress scale and three dimensional stress-coping strategies scale provided good reliability and validity, with more than half items fewer than former measurements; (b) inconsistent effects of job stress on stress-coping strategies were found; (c) contradictory to former findings, teacher-student ratio accelerated the negative effect of job stress on stress-coping strategies. This article also gave suggestions for further research and practices.

Keywords: job stress; job stress-coping strategies; early childhood education and care staff; teacher-student ratio; latent moderation effect