教育學報



在家靠父母,出外靠朋友?不同社經地位青少年的父母支持、同儕支持與心理健康之關係

2018.第46卷第2期(Vol. 46 No. 2).pp. 21–41
 

在家靠父母,出外靠朋友?不同社經地位青少年的父母支持、同儕支持與心理健康之關係

Relying on Parents and Friends: The Effects of Parental and Peer Support on the Mental Health of Adolescents With a High and Low Socioeconomic Status

江守峻、陳婉真(Shou-Chun CHIANG & Wan-Chen CHEN)

摘要

本研究旨在探討不同社經地位青少年的父母支持和同儕支持對於心理健康之影響,比較在不同家庭社經地位下,父母和同儕是否具有同等重要性,還是會因為社經地位而有所差異。研究資料來自台灣青少年成長歷程研究(Taiwan Youth Project, TYP),研究對象為其中969名國一學生。資料分析包括結構方程模型與多群組分析。研究發現:(1)對於高社經地位青少年,父母支持對自尊有正向顯著效果、對憂鬱則有負向顯著效果,但同儕支持對自尊和憂鬱皆無顯著效果;(2)對於低社經地位青少年,父母支持、同儕支持對自尊皆有正向顯著效果、對憂鬱則皆有負向顯著效果;(3)相對於低社經地位青少年,高社經地位青少年的父母支持對自尊的正向效果、父母支持對憂鬱的負向效果顯著更高;同儕支持對自尊和憂鬱的效果則無顯著差異。總結來說,高社經地位青少年心理健康主要受父母親影響,且影響程度明顯高於低社經者;低社經地位青少年心理健康同時受父母親和同儕朋友影響。根據上述結果,本研究針對教育工作和未來研究提出相關建議。

關鍵詞:社經地位;心理健康;青少年;父母支持;同儕支持

Abstract

This study explored how parental and peer support influence the mental health of adolescents with a high and low socioeconomic status (SES). By comparing the SES of adolescents, we examined whether parents and peers have the same importance and whether their influence on mental health differs. Data were provided by the Taiwan Youth Project. The participants were 969 first-grade junior high school students, and the results revealed that: (a) For the adolescents with a high SES, parental support had a significant positive effect on self-esteem and a significant negative effect on depression. Furthermore, peer support had no significant effect on self-esteem and depression. (2) For the adolescents with a low SES, both parental and peer support had a significant positive effect on self-esteem and a significant negative effect on depression. (3) The parental support of the adolescents with a high SES had an increasing effect on self-esteem and depression, which was in contrast to the adolescents with a low SES. In conclusion, the mental health of the adolescents with a high SES was primarily affected by parents, whereas that of the adolescents with a low SES was affected by parents and peers. Based on the results, suggestions for education and future research were provided.

Keywords: socioeconomic status; mental health; adolescent; parental support; peer support