教育學報



「生態自我」理念及其對生態教育之意涵

2016.第44卷第2期(Vol. 44 No. 2).pp. 127–142
 

「生態自我」理念及其對生態教育之意涵

The Notion of Ecological Self and Its Implications on Ecological Education

王嘉陵(Chia-Ling WANG)

摘要

今天,生態危機重重,人們在教育上必須重新認識自我與自然的關係。本文目的在於探討挪威生態哲學家Arne Naess的「生態自我」理念,從相關詮釋與批判,分析Naess「生態自我」理念的主張與內涵,並思考「生態自我」如何達到自我實現,以及這個概念在生態教育上的意涵。研究取徑是哲學的詮釋,輔以文獻的整理、分析與比較。研究發現,「生態自我」提醒人,成熟的自我應當放下自我意識、開放自身,學習感通自然界中的其他存有,才能體會到萬事萬物本為一體、無法分割的形上學事實。作者依據Naess的觀點,於文後提出對於生態教育的看法,分別是增進對宇宙本體論的了解、開放自身以體驗自然,以及重新界定自我與他者,認識這兩個概念的無限性。

關鍵詞:生態自我;自我實現;生態教育;奈斯

Abstract

With ecological crisis nowadays, it is required to rethink the relationship between the self and nature in education. This study is a philosophical inquiry. The aim of this article is to explore Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess’s concept of ecological self, and by drawing from its secondary literature, to analyze the significance of this concept. The approach of achieving self-realization and its implications on ecological education will also be discussed. The concept of ecological self reminds us that a mature self should give up the narrow ego and learn to open the self to nature, in order to identify the self with other beings in nature. The self and other beings are ontologically interconnected, which is the reality humans need to recognize. The more we open ourselves to others, the deeper self-realization can be achieved. This is the manner we explore ecosophy and our authentic beings. According to Naess’s notion, the author suggests several possibilities for ecological education: improving understanding of cosmic ontology; guiding learners to open themselves to experiencing nature; and breaking through the limitations on the concepts of the self and others.

Keywords: ecological self; self-realization; ecological education; Naess