教育學報



「守望」抑或「逃離」:城市流動兒童的身分認同與身分建構

2015.第43卷第2期(Vol. 43 No. 2).pp. 71–88
 

「守望」抑或「逃離」:城市流動兒童的身分認同與身分建構

“Anticipation” or “Flee”: The Identity Formation of Migrant Children in Urban China

張東輝(Donghui ZHANG)

摘要

在我國城、鄉二元的社會結構下,流動人口既是「戶籍」農民,又是「編外」市民,隨父母從鄉村來到城市的流動兒童,在成長過程中必然面臨「城市人」還是「農村人」的身分衝突。本文通過對北京市公立學校裏四名流動兒童的個案研究發現:身分認同是一個流變的過程,身為行動者的流動兒童不是戶籍身分的消極接受者,而是身分建構的積極創造者,流動兒童在不同情境下採取不同的認同策略以獲得積極的身分認同和自尊。具體來講,認同「城市人」身分,選擇「守望城市」的流動兒童會採取「拼搏」、「突出城市優勢」、「與老家劃清界限」等手段獲得積極的身分認同;而較認同「農村人」身分,選擇「逃離城市」的流動兒童則通過與城市人抗爭、強化農村人優點等策略尋求正面的身分認同。

關鍵詞:身分建構;身分認同;流動兒童;社會流動

Abstract

Under the urban-rural dualistic structure of contemporary China, migrants residing in urban cities retain their status of peasants by household registration. Migrant children who come to cities with their parents are inevitably confronted with identity crisis in their growing-up process. Based on case studies with four migrant children in a Beijing public school, it was found that identity formation is a fluid process. Household registration status does not prevent these migrant children from identifying as “urban residents.” Instead, these migrant children adopt different strategies in different situations to acquire positive social status and self-esteem. Specifically, children who identify themselves as urbanites anticipate joining the city through “working hard,” “using rural life as a reference point,” and “estranging themselves from their rural origin,” whereas children who identify themselves as rural people tend to highlight the strengths of rural people and to flee from the competition with their urban peers.

Keywords: migrant children; identity formation; identification; social mobility