教育學報



認知策略、心情沉靜狀態、課室專注力與學業成就之關聯:以台灣一所高級職業學校為例

2014.第42卷第2(Vol. 42 No. 2).pp. 23–50
 

認知策略、心情沉靜狀態、課室專注力與學業成就之關聯:以台灣一所高級職業學校為例

Examining the Relationship Between Cognitive Strategies, Calmness, Classroom Concentration, and Academic Achievement: Taking a Vocational School in Taiwan as an Example

楊雅婷、陳奕樺(Ya-Ting YANG & I-Hua CHAN)

摘要

課室專注力是學生理解教學訊息的基礎,現今科技聲光媒體充斥,學生課室專注力不佳的問題急待解決。本研究從過往文獻歸納出與課室專注力關聯密切的變項,建構認知策略、心情沉靜狀態、課室專注力與學業成就關聯的解釋模型,並檢驗課室專注力在其中扮演的中介角色。研究者以台灣一所高級職業學校254名一年級學生為對象,並以心電訊號進行心率變異性分析,測得學生於三堂物理課中的心情沉靜狀態。本研究經過模型比較,選擇出最佳的模型架構進行後續的模型適配度考驗,結果顯示關係模型與實徵資料適配情況良好,模型的路徑顯示:學生認知策略運用得愈多,課室專注力愈高;心情愈為沉靜,課室專注力愈高;學生的課室專注力愈高,學業成就愈高;課室專注力在認知策略與心情沉靜狀態對學業成就的影響中,均具有中介效果。綜合而論,本研究除驗證了認知策略與心情沉靜狀態對於課室專注力具正向影響外,更發現認知策略對於課室專注力的效果大於心情沉靜狀態帶來的影響,亦確認課室專注力的中介效果。根據結果,研究者提出三點未來研究建議:(1)心率變異性分析的擴大應用;(2)認知策略的測量時間要更為即時;(3)調整模型,納入學習動機與學業成就組別變項。

關鍵詞:認知策略;心情沉靜狀態;課室專注力;學業成就;心率變異性

Abstract

Students’ concentration in the classroom is fundamental to understanding what teachers instruct. However, in this era of too much audiovisual stimulus, low classroom concentration of students is an urgent problem to be resolved. After reviewing the literature of attention training, this study proposed a model to explain the relationship between cognitive strategies, calmness, classroom concentration, and academic achievement. Also the mediation effect of classroom concentration was examined. A total of 254 senior vocational students in one vocational high school in Kaohsiung participated in this study. To measure students’ calmness, heart rate variability analysis was used in three classes of physics. After model comparison, one model that had better fit index (Akaike information criterion) was chosen and was further examined. Results showed that the model fit well with empirical data and all hypotheses were supported: (a) the more cognitive strategies were used, the higher classroom concentration; (b) the more calmness, the higher classroom concentration; (c) the higher classroom concentration, the higher academic achievement; (d) the mediation effect of classroom concentration was found in both the relationship between cognitive strategies and academic achievement as well as between calmness and academic achievement. This study not only suggested that cognitive strategies and calmness positively influence classroom concentration, but also found that the effect of the former is larger than the latter. Suggestions for future studies were also provided.

Keywords: cognitive strategies; calmness; classroom concentration; academic achievement; heart rate variability