教育學報



「教學法」課程之演進與革新

1992.第20卷第1期(Vol. 20 No. 1).pp. 3–16

 

「教學法」課程之演進與革新

Development and Reform of the Curriculum of Teaching Methodology

蕭炳基(Ping-Kee SIU)

摘要

過去卅年,以「過程-成效」研究範式來探討教師行為與學生成績關係的研究報告大量發表。本文回顧了三個範疇的教師效能研究:首先是教師個別教學策略和技巧、繼而是理論教學模式、再而是教師認知和反省思考研究。廣義來說,「教學法」課程包括理論知識、方法知識、教學策略和模式、教師自覺和反思訓練、和實習經驗。將理論、策略和模式轉化成實踐經驗,實有賴教學實習和教師教學反思過程。現行教學法課程中最弱的就是這兩個環節,而教學反思訓練更全付厥如,這是師訓教育中一項致命的弱點。「教學法」 課程革新主要是將學理方法學習、實習前教程策劃訓練、實習教學與視導教學、實習後教學反思訓練四部份連結,構成一個有機組合。這不但可改進教師教學質素,還可改良教師思想質素。

Abstract

For the past thirty years, a large quantity of research studies have been conducted to investigate the relation between teacher behavior and student achievement under the process-product research paradigm. In this article, we have reviewed three areas of teacher studies: Firstly the teaching strategies and skills, secondly the theoretical models of instruction, and finally the teachers' cognition and reflective thinking. The curriculum of teaching methodology, broadly defined, comprises theoretical knowledge, methodological knowledge, teaching strategies and models, teachers' metacognition and reflection, and practice teaching. The transition or theoretical knowledge into classroom practice depends much upon the training experience of practice teaching and teachers' cognition and reflection. The latter two components appear to be the weaker ones of the present teacher education programmes. The curriculum reform, therefore, should aim at integrating the theoretical learning, the pre-practice training on the planning processes, the practice teaching and instructional supervision and the post-practice training on teachers' metacognition and reflection into an organic system. It is expected that this system will raise the quality of the classroom teaching and teachers' cognition, both of which are essential to the success of the teacher education programmes.