教育學報



學校組織變革:理論、策略和技術

1991.第19卷第2期(Vol. 19 No. 2).pp. 133–144

 

學校組織變革:理論、策略和技術

School Organizational Change: Theories, Strategies, and Techniques

鄭燕祥、伍國雄(Yin-Cheong CHENG & Kwok-Hung NG)

摘要

學校組織變革已成為目前教育改革的重要課題。本文嘗試初步探討與學校組織變革有關的理論、策略和技術,幫助變革的推行和研究。從Parsons(1966)的理論來看,組織變革是一種適應性的表現,能提高學校的目標進取性、整合性、以及維模性;又若從Cheng(1990)的學校效能動態模式來分析,組織變革是追求組織效能的一個動態過程,是學校適應內外的限制並長遠地成就不同目標而必要的表現和能力。組織變革的動力有社會、科技、經濟、成員需求,及組織特性等因素,而對變革的阻抗來源則可分為個人阻抗和組織阻抗兩種。要成功推行學校組織變革,除有理論上的認知外,尚需要掌握不同的變革策略和技巧,因應情境和資源的限制性而適當運用。目前學校組織變革的研究逐漸增多,但尚待努力的地方也不少,可參考本文提出的模式進行探討。

Abstract

School organizational change becomes a critical issue in current educational reforms in advanced countries as well as in Hong Kong. This paper provides a preliminary exploration of the theories, strategies, and techniques of organizational change in schools. From the Parsons' (1966) theory, organizational change is a reflection of adaptation of a school organization contributing to goal achievement, integration, and pattern maintenance. According to Cheng's (1990) dynamic model of school effectiveness, organizational change is a dynamic process of pursuing organizational effectiveness, in which a school can overcome or adapt to internal and external barriers and achieve diverse goals in a long run. The forces for school organizational change may include social forces, technological forces, economic forces, employee needs and values, and organizational forces. The resistances to organizational change may be individual resistances or organizational resistances. In addition to theories of school organizational change, various strategies and techniques are needed for successful implementation of change in schools, contingent on preexisting conditions and resource availability.