教育學報



科技轉變與教育角色

1991.第19卷第1期(Vol. 19 No. 1).pp. 83–91

 

科技轉變與教育角色

Technological Changes and the Role of Education

鍾宇平(Yue-Ping CHUNG)

摘要

本文從探索科技轉變的種類及過程,進而討論教育對科技轉變所產生的作用。雖然「發明」活動在科技轉變的過程中非常重要,作者放棄了熊彼得(Schumpeter)的「大突破」觀點而引用了Rosenberg的「漸進的積累」的觀點:一個發明最後能被採用及對經濟成長產生作用,是經過無數次的改良的。要促進這「漸進的積累」,有針對性的科研活動固然重要,但工人「從工作中學習」及「從使用中學習」所起的作用,也是絕對不能忽視的。這些「學習」的出現,有兩個條件:一是工人的學習能力與適應能力;二是工場的組識所提供的學習環境。在學習能力及適應能力方面,基礎教育的設計應著重工人的通識教育而不是職業訓練;在工場的組織方面,應著重工人的主動參與及能讓工人提供迴輸的組織安排。對於後者,「工人合作社」是一個很值得研究的模式,而工人能否是必需的先決條件。基礎教育在這方面的作用,也是不容低估的。最後本文提出了一些對促進科技轉變的教育的一些研究方向。

Abstract

This paper examines the types and process of technological changes, and the role of education in facilitating these changes. Even though invention is a significant step in technological changes the author adopts Rosenberg's conception of "gradual process of accretion" instead of Schumpeter's great break-through conception, in the present analysis. In order to factilitate this "gradual process of accretion", mission-oriented R&D is crucial. However, the importance of Learning-'by-doing and Learning-by-using of the workers call never be overlooked. There are two basic conditions for these types of learning to occur: the ability to learn and the ability to adapt of the workers; and the learning opportunity provided by the structure of the workplace. For the first condition, general education rather than technical skill training is more appropriate. For the second condition, work group arrangement where workers can participate in and provide feedback for decision-making is germane. With reference to the latter, a certain level of basic knowledge and the ability to participate in democratic decision-making of the workers are prerequisite. The importance of general education is also obvious here. Finally, this paper raises some research agenda in the study of education for technological changes.