教育研究學報



誰最有創造力?──中、德、美三國大學生的調查及思考

2006.第21卷第2期(Vol. 21 No. 2).pp. 283–302
 

誰最有創造力?──中、德、美三國大學生的調查及思考

Who Are the Most Creative? — Views From Undergraduates in China, Germany and the U.S.

岳曉東(Xiaodong YUE)

摘要

本研究在香港、南京、德國和美國的大學中取樣調查分析,檢驗不同文化形態下的大學生對創造力及其代表人物認知上的差異。研究發現中國學生(以南京學生尤甚)多提名政治家和科學家;德國學生多提名藝術界和思想界的傑出人物;而美國學生則多推崇政治名人,其次推崇藝術家,其他領域的提名也較為均衡,比例高於中國學生。兩種不同文化下的認知範式印證了文化對創造力認知的影響:東方社會看重創新行為的實用性及社會貢獻,存在著業績顯著性效應;西方社會看重創造力的多元表現形式和創新思維能力,存在著審美顯著性效應。

關鍵詞:創造力;業績顯著性;審美顯著性

Abstract

The Chinese perception of creativity differs significantly from that in the West in that the former is collectivism-based and emphasizes meritorious salience of creativity while the latter is individualism-based and emphasizes aesthetic salience of creativity. In this research, undergraduates from Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland regarded politicians and scientists, both local and overseas figures, as representative of creative persons and they rarely nominated artists, musicians and businessmen. Politicians and civil rights activists were also highly prevalent in American students' selection for creative people while artists and writers were mostly nominated by German students, followed by scientists and politicians.