教育學報



社會主義現代化建設時期的中國留學政策(1978–1989年)

1990.第18卷第1期(Vol. 18 No. 1).pp. 35–45

 

社會主義現代化建設時期的中國留學政策(1978–1989年)

China's Foreign Study Policy during the Period of Socialist Modernization and Construction (1978–1989)

陳啟明(Kai-Ming CHAN)

摘要

自1978年至1989年,中國的留學政策出現了革命性的變化,留學人員數目大增,形成留學教育蓬勃發展的時期。中國政府派出大量留學人員,目的是汲取西方先進科技知識,為社會主義現代化建設服務。留學人員大部份前往西方資本主義國家學習,這極富突破性意味,而准許自費留學,也是一項新嘗試。留學人員以訪問學人及進修生為主,是另一個重要特色。從留學政策的多番修訂看來,中國政府未能制定一套長期有效的政策措施。80年代以來國家財政情況的惡化,限制了留學人員出國的數目。其後,在體制改革的帶動下,派遣留學生的權力下放至地方及單位,使出國人數再度增加。中國的對外關係,則影響了留人員的分佈。

Abstract

From 1978 to 1989, the Chinese Government Policy towards Overseas Study had undergone revolutionary changes . It was a prosperous period for overseas study. The Government's aim in sending scholars and students abroad was that they would learn modern technology from western countries and be able to serve the country in the "Socialist modernization and construction programs". It was a breakthrough that most of the scholars and students went to western capitalist countries. That permission was given to those students studying at their own expense. And that, in addition, the majority of them were scholars. Since Chinese Government had not established a long-term policy for foreign study, the policy has been changed from time to time. Since 1980, owing to deteriorating financial conditions, the number of scholars sent abroad has been restricted. Lately, due to structural reform, authority for managing overseas study has been decentralized to district and unit level. As a result, overseas study has been activated again. Moreover, diplomatic relations between China and foreign countries had affected the distribution of the overseas students.