教育學報



詞頻效應之研究

1990.第18卷第1期(Vol. 18 No. 1).pp. 3–9

 

詞頻效應之研究

Study of Word Frequency Effect

蕭炳基(Ping-Kee SIU)

摘要

中文詞語構造多無定則,詞頻效應就不能以英文的拼字法則或音讀效果來解說。只能以認知運作自動化原理或熟能生巧的「熟悉」因素來說明。本研究以三種不同學能的中一、中三、中六共267學生作樣本。從《香港初中學生中文詞匯研究》中詞匯表選取高頻詞、中頻詞和低頻詞,再於其中摘取詞頭詞尾配成非詞,非詞中亦有同音別字非詞和位置互換非詞,兩者合稱為特別非詞。結果顯示:辨詞能力隨詞頻組別而異,頻次愈高辨認率愈高,只有低頻詞與特別非詞兩者無差異。中六學生在各詞組均優於中三中一兩級學生,在低、中頻詞組,中三亦優於中一學生。反應速度亦隨詞而有分別,頻次愈高則反應速度愈快,其中非詞組特別非詞組兩者在反應速度方面無差別。可是三級學生在各詞組中皆沒有差異情況,學習經驗對反應速度在辨詞考驗中並不產生影響。大致而言,本研究結果肯定了詞頻在辨詞能力反祇速度方面均有顯著效應。

Abstract

Due to the lack of formal rules to form two-character words in Chinese, the word frequency effect has to be based on the experiential encounters or cognitive automation. A total of 267 Form I, III, and VI students participated as samples. High-, medium-, and low-frequency words were drawn from the two- character word lists in "The Statistic Study of Chinese Lexical Units". A pseudoword group was formed and two groups of 'special pseudoword were also made up by replacement of the homophones or positional rearrangement. The results showed (1) word frequency positively affected the correct rate, but the low-frequency word did not differ with the pseudoword group in decision measures. Form Vl students outperformed the lower Form students in all word lists while Form III exceeded Form I in the medium- and low- frequency word lists; (2) word frequency correlated negatively with response latency except that the pseudoword and 'special pseudoword' groups yielded no difference in latency measures; and (3) no significant difference was found among the three Forms in each of the five word lists. Categorically, the findings confirmed that word frequency did have effects on the response latency and correct rate in the lexical decision task.