教育學報



民眾的美育:中國陜西省群眾文化體系與城鄉藝術教育

1989.第17卷第2期(Vol. 17 No. 2).pp. 102–113

 

民眾的美育:中國陜西省群眾文化體系與城鄉藝術教育

Art Education for the People: Mass Cultural System and Urban-Rural Arts Education in China's Shaanxi Province

盧乃桂(Leslie Nai-Kwai LO)

摘要

長期以來,非正規教育研究集中於探討它的宏觀效能,如改善貧苦大眾的社經地位和提高勞工階層的生產能力。至於它的教學內容和方法,及有關學員的個人發展的教育問題,則甚少受人重視。本文的目的,是通過討論中國陝西省的一些視覺和表演藝術的非正規教育課程,來探討其中的教育和教法問題。陝西是中國的一個中度發展的省份,同時也是一個極具鄉土色彩的地方。討論範圍包括:(一)藝術課程所傳播的「正確」觀念和知識;(二}學業成就的最低標準;(三}非正規教育的適當範疇;(四)教學兼融中西藝術觀念和形式。研究方法包括分析在國內出版的文字資料內容,與群眾文化幹部、教師和教員的晤談,及課堂觀察。研究結果顯示:群眾文化體系所辦的非正規藝術教育課程,基本上能夠散播切合實際的知識和技能。但因為其本身的限制,這些課程末能夠培養有創意、樂於追尋和富洞察力的人才。

Abstract

Since the emergence of nonformal education, studies in the field have concentrated on its contribution to the alleviation of poverty and the improvement of productivity of the work-force. Little has been done to bring interested readers into the pedagogical context of nonformal education, and explore educational issues that pertain to the personal development of its participants. The purpose of this paper is to highlight educational and pedagogical issues in nonformal education programs for the visual and performing arts in China's Shaanxi province. The mid-western province has a wealth of folk culture and is representative of middle-income China. Altogether, four major educational issues are discussed: (1) dissemination of "correct" knowledge in arts courses; (2) setting minimum standards of proficiency; (3) defining the proper perimeter of nonformal arts education; and (4) integration of tradition and modernity, indigenous and foreign in the pedagogy. The research method employed in this paper combines content analysis of Chinese written materials, interviews with participants, and in-class observations. It concludes that nonformal arts education programs, as found in the Mass Cultural System, are to disseminate relevant knowledge and skills. Given its limitations, however, the programs fall short of cultivating creative, inquisitive, and insightful talents.