1989．第17卷第1期（Vol. 17 No. 1）．pp. 3749
Decades of Educational Expansion, the Expansion of a Dual System: The Case of Japan and Hong Kong
The expansion of the education sector is phenomenal worldwide in the modern postwar period. However it is found in some countries that this exceptional education is achieved or accompanied by the growth of the private sector, and the case is complicated by the fact that many of the private schools/institutions established to accommodate the increasing number of aspirants for education are incompatible with the well-established public ones in terms of facilities and resources. Thus a dual system occurs in the education sector. This leads to the awareness that although many aspirants may obtain school places, what many of them have obtained are only inferior ones, and this further casts doubt on the availability of equal educational opportunity when such expansion is taking place. Japan and Hong Kong are studied in this context. Both societies have experienced rapid social and education development, although educational development took place in Japan much earlier. And it is particularly interesting in this case to see that the dual system is manifest in the higher education sector in Japan and in the secondary sector in Hong Kong. This exemplifies the observation that a dual system develops in the course of rapid educational expansion. The objective of this paper is to trace the development of a dual system in Japan and Hong Kong, and as a final note, the attempts of the two societies to tackle this problems.