1988.第3卷(Vol. 3).pp. 49–53


Development of Visual Motor Perception — A Comparison between Hong Kong and American Children

劉鄧靜宜、李勵勉(Winnie Ching-Yee LAU TANG & Paul Lai-Min LEE)




The Bender Gestalt test is an established instrument used to diagnose the maturity of visual-motor perception in young children. In clinical settings, it is often used as a tool to help identify children with difficulties in visual motor perceptual functioning. In the present norming exercise, data was collected on 1,168 children aged between five and ten years, the same age range as in the American norming exercise in 1963 by E.M. Koppitz. The children in the sample were of lower Kindergarten to Primary 4 levels, drawn from three geographical regions in Hong Kong.

The Bender Gestalt Test is a test scored for errors made on the 30 scoring items whilst copying the nine test designs. The test protocols were scored by five educational psychologists, according to the Koppitz scoring system. The inter-rater reliability among the five raters were computed and the correlation coefficients were found to be satisfactory, ranging from 0.95 to 0.98. Norms were generated on the 12 six-month age groups, giving the mean error scores and standard deviations expected of children of each particular age category.

When the performance of Hong Kong children is compared with that of the American children (Koppitz, 1963 and 1975), a much more restricted range of mean error scores is noted for Hong Kong children of the same age range, both in terms of the smaller number of mean error scores and the total time taken to complete the test. For individual age groups, the performance of Hong Kong children is about 1.5 years ahead of their American counterparts, though both samples begin to level off at about the same age, i.e., at 8 years 6 months and nine years, respectively. The fact that local children are given more training in paper and pencil tasks and at an earlier age may contribute to their better performance on the Bender Gestalt Test. Findings also suggest the likelihood of generalizing the American findings for children with brain injury to that local children, but more work will need to be done on local children with neurological impairment before establishing any conclusive remarks.