教育學報



也談一些教育學院沒有教而實習教師應該知道的事情

1988.第16卷第1期(Vol. 16 No. 1).pp. 118–124

 

也談一些教育學院沒有教而實習教師應該知道的事情

On What the School of Education Doesn't Teach but Student-teachers Should Know

劉誠(Sing LAU)

摘要

教學實習時的現實衝擊常會使實習教師感到沮喪,從而減弱或放棄他們原先抱有較人本、較以學生為中心的教育理想。面對實習失敗時,他們會更加覺得理想與現實、理論與實踐之間存在很大的差距。換言之,是失敗的實習經驗導致或加強他們有差距的感覺。本文會從兩方面去討論:一、教學實習失敗的因素;二、理想與現實的差距成因。教學挫析會與教師教學歷程的發展階段有關。挫折往往在歷程的第一個階段最易出現。在這階段,教師較專注在自我需要的滿足和自我形象的建立,而較忽略學生的需要和觀點角度。本文提到幾點是實習教師可以注意,以減少失胸經驗和這些經驗所帶來的負面衝擊。理想與現實的差距似乎是必然的,其中的原因包括理想與理想的本質與作用在於提升和導向,而不在於迎合和迷失於現實中。其次,差距的出現也在於人不想變動太大,只希望做最少的改變而帶來最大的效果。更且,差距的感覺的出現,往往在於理想與理論的學習經驗:若缺乏了學習的模範時,感覺會愈強烈。這點尤其是師範教育工作者要面對和自我檢討的。最後,本文亦提到減低差距的一些積極方法。

Abstract

The reality shock of teaching practice often makes student-teachers feel disheartened. It also makes them change their humanistic and student-oriented thinking toward a more conservative direction. In encountering failures, student-teachers are more disillusioned by the gap between ideal and reality, and theory and practice. This paper focuses on two aspects: The reasons causing teaching practice failures, and the reasons leading to the ideal-reality and theory-practice gap. Teaching failures are related to the developmental stage of the teaching process. Failures tend to appear more often in the first stage. In this stage, teachers tend to concern more with satisfying their needs and building their image, and less with students' needs and perspectives of thinking. Several suggestions to reduce failure experiences in teaching and to minimize the negative effects of such experiences are made. The gap between ideal and reality and between theory and practice seems inevitable. This is because the nature and function of ideal and theory are to transcend and to give direction, and not to merge with and get lost in reality. Also, the gap exists because people do not want to make big changes. It is common that people want to make small changes and bring about big effects. Moreover, the existence of the gap is often related to the experience of learning ideal and theory: When learning models are lacking, the gap feeling is stronger. Educators involved with teacher education should take note of and reflect on this. Finally, suggestions to reduce the gap are also made.