亞洲輔導學報



台灣的家庭文化與家庭治療

2001.第8卷第2期(Vol. 8 No. 2).pp. 153–174
 

台灣的家庭文化與家庭治療

Cultural and Family Therapy in Taiwan

陳秉華、游淑瑜(Ping-Hwa CHEN & Shu-Yu YO)

摘要

本文首先回顧台灣的家庭文化特徵,並在此基礎上探討台灣的家庭工作者在學習與應用西方的家庭治療時,所浮現出與文化相關的議題。文章分為三部分。第一部分透過相關文獻的敘述,探討華人在台灣的家庭文化特徵,包括:家族主義、父權的與階級的家庭結構、兩性在婚姻與家庭中的性別角色與行為、婆媳關係、孝道倫理、親子教養觀、重視和諧及面子等。第二部分從西方家庭治療的系統觀點,來看台灣的家庭文化對於家庭的維繫與發展可能會產生的正面與負面影響。第三部分透過對台灣家庭工作者的觀察,提出在學習西方家庭治療理論並應用這些理論於處理台灣的家庭問題的過程中,所浮現出與文化相關的幾個議題,包括:學習面對家庭衝突與適度表達真實自我、處理自我分化、重組家庭結構並強化次系統的功能和界限、促進平權的兩性關係、改變對有問題家庭的詮釋。作者期待透過本文,能夠帶出更多對於華人文化與家庭治療的反省與討論。

Abstract

This article aims to provide an overview of the characteristics of the Chinese family, and to analyze the cultural themes that emerged when Taiwanese family therapy professionals learned and practiced Western family therapy. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews the traditional Chinese family characteristics in Taiwan, including familism, hierarchical and patriarchic family structure, gender roles in marriage and family, filial piety, parenting behavior, the emphasis on familial harmony and the avoidance of family conflicts, and face-saving. Second, it gives an analysis of the merits and disadvantages in the development of contemporary Chinese/Taiwanese families which are under the influence of modernization and Westernization on the one hand but still embrace and practice Chinese cultural and familial traditions on the other. Third, it discusses the cultural themes from the viewpoints of Taiwanese family therapy professions. These themes include: coping with family conflicts and expressing the true self; self-differentiation in connected family; reorganization of family structure and strengthening the functions and boundary of family subsystems; equalization of power in spousal relationship; and change of perception of troubled families.