亞洲輔導學報



邁向專業──台灣輔導界發展的回顧與前瞻

1999.第6卷第2期(Vol. 6 No. 2).pp. 21–48
 

邁向專業──台灣輔導界發展的回顧與前瞻

Towards Professionalism: The Development of Counseling in Taiwan

陳秉華(Ping-Hwa CHEN)

摘要

自1950年開始,台灣在政府當局及輔導學者和專家的推動下,首先開始為僑生提供學業與生活輔導,進而為一些學校教師提供輔導知能訓練,並且選定部分中學進行輔導的實驗方案。1968年,台灣政府實施九年國民教育,在中學的學校課程及學校行政組織中正式納入輔導,之後,又逐年延伸到小學及大專各學校層級。到了1980年代,各級學校輔導工作完全奠基。1990年後,在台灣當局全面推動「國家建設六年計劃」以及來自民間的教育改革運動,令輔導及其重要性更普遍為學校及社會大眾所接受。近十年來,台灣的社會在各種弱勢團體的努力下,紛紛成立不同的政府及民間的輔導諮商機構,並且推動政府進行相關的修法與立法。企業界也開始重視對員工的心理輔導及教育訓練。台灣輔導界目前所面臨的挑戰,包括尋求專業認定與自主、培育專業輔導員與督導者、輔導工作專精化、專業分工與整合、確保專業倫理與服務品質,以及建立合適台灣社會的本土輔導學。

Abstract

Since 1950, based on the governmental policy and with the efforts of counseling specialists, Taiwan has started to provide Chinese youth from abroad guidance and counseling to help them make better adjustment. At the same time, school teachers were trained with guidance knowledge to start experimental projects at some chosen middle schools. In 1968, nine-year compulsory education was inaugurated, and guidance and counseling was first officially included in middle school curriculum and administration. In the following 10 years, counseling was extended to elementary schools and colleges. In the 1980s all levels of schools had counseling education and programs. Since 1990, a "Six-year National Development Program" has been in full gear, and under the impact of civil education reform, the acknowledgement and importance of counseling has been widely recognized by schools and society. In the past ten years, with the efforts of the disadvantaged groups, various counseling organizations have been founded to serve those with special needs. The government has been pushed to make some legislation. Some industries now are also aware of the value of counseling, and they start providing employment assistance programs for their employees. The challenges we now face include searching for the professional identity and autonomy, cultivating more professional counselors and supervisors, the specialization and the integration of counselors and practitioners of the related fields, ensuring the professional ethics and qualities, and developing the indigenous counseling for Taiwan's society.