教育學報



滬港兩地教育改革下的教師專業性

2005.第33卷第1–2期(Vol. 33 Nos. 1–2).pp. 63–87

 

滬港兩地教育改革下的教師專業性

Teacher Professionalism in Educational Reform: The Experiences of Hong Kong and Shanghai

黎萬紅、盧乃桂(Manhong LAI & Leslie N. K. LO)

摘要

自20世紀90年代末,滬港兩地積極推動教育改革,以發展優質/素質教育為主要的發展方向。面對教與學的種種改革,教師的工作出現了新的轉變及挑戰。本文比較上海及香港兩地在教育改革的大情境下教師專業性的面貌,以呈現兩地教師在教改下的處境及面對的困難。據研究所見,香港教師傾向於選擇性地落實有利於學生學習的官方教改政策,上海教師則傾向於轉變自己的觀念,適應中央政策的要求。在強調問責性的評核下,香港教師的工作呈現出密集性趨勢。對於何謂教師專業性,香港教師有其獨立的詮釋,上海教師則較傾向於服膺國家的看法。然而,香港教師的工作受教育市場的牽制日增。無論是受國家主導或是受教育市場的牽制,兩地教師在教育改革的過程中,均呈現出「規限的專業性」。研究亦發現,兩地教師對於教師專業性的意識偏弱,為教師增權相信是未來教師發展的主要方向。

Abstract

The quality of school education has been a major concern in the education systems of Hong Kong and Shanghai since the 1990s. As indispensable contributors to such massive reform efforts, teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai were counted on to ensure the successful implementation of “quality education” in the schools that they served. From field observation and interviews, teachers working in schools of the two cities responded differently to the policy measures for “quality education.” While teachers in Hong Kong tended to adopt those policy measures that were considered beneficial to their students, teachers in Shanghai were more likely to be accommodating in applying those measures. Teachers in Hong Kong were more vocal in expressing their frustration caused by the intensification of work. Their Shanghai counterparts seldom expressed their dissent from state initiatives. Teachers’ work in Hong Kong was being increasingly mediated by influences of the emerging market of schooling, whereas the work of Shanghai teachers was still monitored by the state. Whether teachers were able to have their own interpretation of “professionalism,” like those in Hong Kong, or followed closely the official interpretation of “professionalism” in state rhetoric, like those in Shanghai, teacher professionalism in both cities can be viewed as “confined professionalism.” The relatively weak awareness of professionalism, as demonstrated by teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai, should warrant that serious consideration be given to teacher empowerment in both societies.