教育政策研討系列

Occasional Papers
No. 51

全球化情境下的權力下放與教育改革:中國內地中央政府、地方政府及學校角色的探討pdf 全文(回頁頂)
黎萬紅、盧乃桂

在全球化的大趨勢下,由於信息的流通,不少改革的概念已經透過全球化的網絡影響著不同國家的教育改革,其中權力下放成為了近年很多國家的改革重點。到底在不同國家,教育制度的改革是趨同還是多元化的問題,引發了廣泛的學術討論。自1985年以來,中國內地一直強調基礎教育「地方負責、分級管理」。然而,研究所見,中國內地的教育分權政策其實是由中央政府主導,而地方政府的角色主要是承擔財政責任,落實中央的政策方向。一旦部分的執行權下放至地方,地方政府多以集權的手法管治地方教育事業,學校的自主空間其實相當有限,校長和教師都只是被動的執行者。中央政府放責不放權,可以說是表面分權的集權主義。中央政府透過制訂中央政策文件和督導機制,重新找到了合適的位置,發揮國家的調控角色。權力下放作為外來的教育改革理念,在中國內地的特定情境中,中央政府其實掌握了最大的詮釋權。

ISBN 962–8077–78–3
40頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 52

課程統整效能的研究:批判性的文獻回顧pdf 全文(回頁頂)
張爽、林智中

本書整理和分析有關統整課程效能的研究文獻,研究基於這樣的假設:統整課程的支持者提出了統整課程的很多好處,但是不少說法實際上是從理論得來的推斷,那麼是否有足夠的證據證明它們的好處呢?本書的目的就是回顧有關統整課程效能的理論與實證研究,希望通過對這些研究作批判性的文獻綜述,讓教師和課程研究者了解目前對統整課程效能的研究狀況,發現其中的問題,並反思如何面對課程統整工作。相信這些問題對於理解和實施統整課程是重要的,對今後改進就統整課程效能所進行的研究具有重要意義。

ISBN 962–8077–80–5
84頁,平裝,HK$30

 

No. 53

課程範式:意涵、應用和爭議pdf 全文(回頁頂)
霍秉坤、黃顯華

本書從範式的定義入手,探討課程範式的概念。首先,本書從Merton及Kuhn對範式的概念入手,說明和分析兩人對範式的意涵;其次,會根據Merton及Kuhn兩人的看法,分析範式這概念在課程領域的應用;最後,綜合課程範式的爭議焦點。

ISBN 962–8077–81–3
92頁,平裝,HK$30

 

No. 54

從國際視域剖析香港教育的素質與均等(回頁頂)
何瑞珠

本書以幾個重要的國際評估研究為切入點,檢視本港教育的效能。以教育素質而言,香港學生在以往的國際評估中表現尚算理想。在2003年公佈的「學生能力國際評估計劃」中,香港的15歲學生在閱讀、數學及科學的表現均十分出色,而且來自不同社經階層的學生的教育成果相當均等。然而,學校之間的能力差距遠高於多個成績優秀的國家,這意味香港學校之間的學能分隔情況相當嚴重。

ISBN 962–8077–82–1
32頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 55

從國際學生閱讀評估計劃看本港中文科的讀文教學(回頁頂)
湯才偉

本文根據國際學生評估計劃(Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA)中有關閱讀能力的評估內容,指出PISA所評估的閱讀能力概念和範疇,與本港中、小學中國語文科中所訂定的閱讀目標並不完全相同。而檢視本港中、小學新、舊中國語文科課程,發現所謂的語文能力其實與文學方面的要求有很強的關係。面對21世紀的資訊社會,有必要重新思考「語文能力」這概念的含意。

ISBN 962–8077–84–8
44頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 56

從PISA剖析香港中學生的學習策略與學習成效的關係(回頁頂)
何瑞珠

本文旨在從國際學生評估計劃(Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA)來剖析香港中學生的自主學習程度,並採用多層迴歸分析來了解自主學習與學習成效的關係。研究發現,在九個自主學習指數中,有六個與學生的閱讀、數學及科學成績呈顯著的正相關;此外,除了「競爭學習」這指數外,香港中學生採用自主學習策略的程度均低於其他國家。

ISBN 962–8077–85–6
32頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 57

Can Basic Education System in Hong Kong Be Equal and Excellent:
Results from PISA2000+
(pdf full text) (Back to top)
Esther Sui-chu Ho

"Can schools simultaneously achieve high academic standard and foster equal educational opportunity?" This article attempts to address this issue by investigating the performance of 15-year-old secondary school students in Hong Kong. First, it will review the quality of secondary school system by assessing the overall performance on reading, mathematics, and science. Then it will assess the equality of educational outcomes by examining the achievement gap between students from different social backgrounds. The results suggest that Hong Kong's education system has achieved both excellence and equality of opportunity when compared with other countries. However, there are also serious academic and social segregation among schools.

ISBN 962–8077–89–9
40 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 58

A Cross-national Perspective on Some Characteristics Shared by the
Best-performing Countries in PISA
(pdf full text) (Back to top)
Andreas Schleicher

The PISA 2000 assessments of performance by 15-year-olds revealed wide differences among countries, and between schools and students within countries. However, the results achieved by students in Finland, Canada, Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan indicate that it is possible to combine high performance standards with an equitable distribution of learning outcomes. Nevertheless, even the countries that performed well overall in the 2000 PISA assessments have areas for concern. In almost all countries, there is a significant minority of students who performed at reading literacy level 1 or below. Important pointers for policy that emerge from the results include building students' engagement with reading and school more generally, focusing on learning outcomes rather than educational inputs, providing schools with the authority for organizing their own programs and holding them accountable for the results, and reducing the extent of social and educational differentiation among schools.

ISBN 962–8077–90–2
84 pages, paperback, HK$30

 

No. 59

尋找香港高中通識教育的意義pdf 全文(回頁頂)
曾榮光

本文從教育意義和理念出發,整理和分析香港高中通識教育的意義和價值。本文首先整理有關在高中設立必修通識教育的爭論。其次,本文會根據通識教育在歐、美的發展過程,檢討通識教育的歷史意義。第三,本文會從教育理念的視點出發,以求整理通識教育在現代社會的普遍意義。最後,對照於有關香港高中通識教育的議論、通識教育的歷史及普遍意義,本文將檢示及批評建議的高中通識教育課程。

ISBN-13: 978–962–8077–95–3; ISBN-10: 962–8077–95–3
32頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 60

Rediscovering Public Purposes of Education in the United States:
An Economic View
(Back to top)
David Stern

The relationship between public and private interests in education has been a recurrent topic of debate in the United States and elsewhere. Why should taxpayers be compelled to pay for the education of other people's children? This paper will review the traditional economic arguments for public schooling, which identify the primary collective benefit from compulsory education as preparing students to participate in a stable and democratic society. The paper will explain the particular sense in which economists use the terms "public" or "collective." It will discuss collective benefits from higher education, and also examine whether increasing individual incomes or aggregate economic growth should be considered collective goods. This discussion is intended to dispel some current misconceptions about what economic theory says with regard to efficient provision of schooling.

ISBN-13: 978–962–8077–99–1; ISBN-10: 962–8077–99–6
52 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 61

Mastering Change in a Globalizing World: New Directions in Leadership (Back to top)
John Pisapia

This paper described the environment created by globalization as the postmodern condition, a stage which differs from the modern paradigm in that it signals a shift toward a new era which will replace the previous one. Where the postmodern condition is found, one may also typically find chaos and a lack of order, multiple truths, and a rejection of the grand narrative. Since the postmodern condition rewards leaders who maximize their conceptual agility and their organization's adaptability, an alternative to the legacy models of modern era leadership is needed. To replace these models, a new conceptualization of strategic leadership to serve as a bridge to the era of globalization was offered. This paper described strategic leadership and its five components, with the focus placed on the fifth strategy (applying the artist's paintbrush). Its essence is that the strategic leader works in a multifaceted reality and must therefore apply a multifaceted set of leadership actions. Finally the pyramids of change were presented to guide leaders in mastering change.

ISBN-13: 978–962–8077–00–7; ISBN-10: 962–8077–00–7
52 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 62

道德教育須情智雙彰 ── 從美國當代道德教育反思(回頁頂)
劉國強

本文開首指出,作為中國主流教育思想的儒家,是一種成德之教,自孔孟始,便兼重情智,然而經實際歷史發展的參雜,使傳統儒家道德教育整體而言偏情歉智。當前中國道德教育的發展,不宜唯美國馬首是瞻,正宜了解美國當代道德教育的發展是由尚智主義的模式開始轉回重視美德與道德情感的模式。本文扼要說明美國由20世紀60年代以來道德教育的四種主要模式 ── 價值澄清法、道德認知發展理論、關懷模式及品性教育,用意在顯示這種轉變。由此,本文進一步指出中國德育的發展不應忽略以美國為代表的西方的這種轉向,而放棄傳統重真實道德情感與美德的培育,不宜片面學習西方的尚智取向,而應情智兼顧,學習西方之餘仍須保存傳統,以建構達至仁智雙彰、情智兼備的德育模式。

ISBN-13: 978–962–8908–12–7; ISBN-10: 962–8908–12–X
44頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 63

中華美德教育的理論意義與當前時代意義pdf 全文(回頁頂)
劉國強

本文試圖論析中華美德教育或儒家倫理教育在理論上有其深度、涵蓋性和圓融一致性,且符合人的常識經驗。中華美德教育在當前具有現實的適切性,既不違科學,亦與西方德育理論發展的轉向吻合,並對西方個人主義、自由主義的漫蕩無歸有救弊補偏的作用,同時還具有情感教育的意義。

ISBN 978–962–8908–13–4
32頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 64

Student Performance in Chinese Medium-of-Instruction (CMI)
and English Medium-of-Instruction (EMI) Schools:
What We Learned from the PISA Study
(pdf full text) (Back to top)
Esther Sui-chu Ho & Evelyn Yee-fun Man

The article begins with a brief review of the context of the language policy in Hong Kong. Then, the major empirical studies concerning language policies and practices in Hong Kong are analyzed. Finally, the authors present the research findings and examine the relationship between student outcomes and MOI tracking based on an analysis of the Hong Kong PISA data. Implications for educators, researchers and policy makers, and recommendations for further research and practice are discussed in the final section.

ISBN 978–962–8908–14–1
68 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 65

由儒家聖賢典範看教師人格 ── 以孔子、唐君毅先生為例(回頁頂)
劉國強

儒家傳統,以教師的最重要職責在傳道。聖賢最能體道弘道,故聖賢為教師人格的最高典範。「道」不易說以至不可說,聖人也如是。本文是以下學上達之進路,以中國人公認孔子為至聖先師,與當代大儒唐君毅的生命上的具體行事與言說,嘗試論述優良教師人格所應具有的六種核心特質:(1)仁愛博施、己立立人,(2)好學不厭、知識廣博,(3)誨人不倦、循循善誘,(4)心胸開闊、海納百川,(5)自覺反省、常求諸己,及(6)嚴師為難、即之也溫。

ISBN 978–962–8908–17–2
36頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 66

從PISA看香港中學生的閱讀表現、習慣及態度(回頁頂)
何瑞珠

本文根據第一屆學生能力國際評估計劃的結果,分析香港中學生在閱讀方面的能力、習慣和態度,以及三者之間的關係。結果顯示,香港15歲學生在閱讀方面表現不俗,平均得分525,在四十多個參與國家或地區當中排名第六;在提取資料、解釋及反思三項(思維)過程所得分數分別是522、522及538,高於經濟合作及發展組織的平均值498、501及502。然而,從他們的自述來看,香港學生在閱讀方面的自我形象卻比其他國家低,這偏低的自我形象與他們閱讀的高能力表現不大相稱。總括來說,在閱讀方面的高分數者大多是女生;他們大都就讀收生素質較高的學校,對閱讀興趣較高且持正面的態度;每天會花最少三十分鐘閱讀課外書和閱讀不同種類的讀物。研究結果對如何在家庭、學校及社會方面提高青少年的閱讀風氣具重要啟示。

ISBN 978–962–8908–18–9
40頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 67

A Plan of School-based Curriculum Development (Design, Enactment and Evaluation) on New Senior Secondary Liberal Studies (pdf full text) (Back to top)
Philomena Ng, Candice Ng, & Hin-wah Wong

This is a case study of the preparation made by a local secondary school for the New Senior Secondary Liberal Studies curriculum. The problems faced by the school and the trajectory adopted to tackle them are illustrated. In doing so, the leadership styles exhibited by different key players would be elucidated.

ISBN 978–962–8908–20–2
84 pages, paperback, HK$30

 

No. 68

Values Education Amid Globalization and Change: The Case of Singapore's Education System (Back to top)
Jason Tan

This paper critiques values education initiatives in Singapore, a city-state whose government is ever-conscious of the need to ensure national economic competitiveness in the global economy. In particular, the paper highlights the National Education policy initiative that was implemented in all mainstream schools in 1997. The paper's central argument is that despite a very top-down, technocratic approach to policymaking and implementation, values education policy initiatives will achieve only limited success. This is because the very ethos of the entire education system, as well as wider socio-political factors, militates against the success of these initiatives.

ISBN 978–962–8908–25–7
36 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 69

Preparing Teachers for the World We Have and for the World We Want: Quality Teachers for a Global Context (Back to top)
A. Lin Goodwin

Preparing quality teachers has become a global concern as all nations strive toward excellence at all levels, be it economic, social, political, cultural, or, of course, educational. While there is little argument about the need for quality teachers and the key role they play in the socialization of citizens and the conveyance of national priorities, there is simultaneously little consensus around what constitutes quality and how quality teachers might be best attained. This paper will take up the question of quality teachers by exploring several pivotal questions: What might quality teaching mean in a global context? What should globally competent teachers know and be able to do? What are some of the issues, dilemmas, barriers, or structures that seem to interfere with the preparation and professional development of quality teachers? The paper ends with possibilities for reform and collaborative research in teacher education.

ISBN 978–962–8908–28–8
36 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 70

PISA 2003解難能力評估及啟示(回頁頂)
何瑞珠

解難能力是2003年學生能力國際評估計劃(Programme for International Student Assessment,以下簡稱PISA)的其中一項評估範疇,香港與全球40多個國家或地區的15歲學生參加了這項國際評估。香港學生在是項解難能力評估的表現相當理想,以平均分548分在參加的國家或地區中名列第二。本文根據PISA 2003的解難能力評估架構及數據,探討解難能力評估題目的特點,包括疑難的類型、疑難所處的脈絡和疑難解決的過程,然後分析香港學生在解難能力範疇的表現,他們的長處和弱點。文章最後討論研究發現在課程與教學方面 ── 包括香港新高中課程的通識教育科及培養學生在真實生活中解決問題的能力 ── 的一些啟示。

ISBN 978–962–8908–30–1
72頁,平裝,HK$30

 

No. 71

香港和澳門學前教育的比較(回頁頂)
葉蓁蓁、何瑞珠

學前教育在21世紀愈來愈受重視,許多研究報告均指出學前教育對兒童成長及社會長遠發展有深遠影響。本文旨在從政策制定者、政策研究者與政策享用者的角度,比較香港、澳門兩地不同持分者對兩地當前學前教育政策的意見。研究首先回顧香港和澳門有關幼兒教育的政策文獻,繼而採用訪談方法,訪問了兩地共33位政府官員、政策研究學者及家長,比較兩地學前教育的政策及措施。

ISBN 978–962–8908–31–8
52頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 72

從國際視域看東亞社會的影子教育(回頁頂)
何瑞珠

補習又稱為「影子教育」,是因為補習與正規教育在本質上有近似的地方:補習在提供的課程及服務等方面都跟隨或模仿正規教育的課程及考核範圍,以至兩者的關係仿如物體及其影子一樣。近年世界各地的教育改革均十分重視評估,尤其是學業成就的考核及監控,無論學生或學校均用盡不同方法務求學業成績達標,使補習風氣在世界各地日漸普遍,而補習對社會與民生的影響亦愈來愈廣泛。本文嘗試根據學生能力國際評估計劃(Programme for International Student Assessment)的實證數據,探討世界各地的補習現況,尤其是東亞社會的補習參與率、補習類型、補習時間和補習跟學科成績的關係。

ISBN 978–962–8908–32–5
40頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 73

Promoting Critical Thinking: Discussing the Capacity of Issue-Inquiry Approach in Liberal Studies (Back to top)
Christy Wai-hung Ip

The New Senior Secondary Curriculum (NSSC) of Liberal Studies has been launched since the academic year of 2009. As a core subject to promote generic skills, Liberal Studies is regarded as an interdisciplinary subject that nurtures critical thinking through issue-inquiry learning approach as one of its learning objectives. In order to explore the capacity of issue-inquiry approach in Liberal Studies to promote critical thinking, this paper discusses such an issue in three parts. First, it introduces the nature of critical thinking and the four habits of mind for critical thinking. Second, the relationship between issue-inquiry learning approach and issue-inquiry learning in Liberal Studies is discussed with the four habits of mind for critical thinking. Finally, this paper reveals some of the problems in the NSSC of Liberal Studies and concludes with recommendations. It is found that although the issue-inquiry learning approach in the NSSC of Liberal Studies includes all the four core habits of mind for critical thinking, there are still rooms for improvement for Liberal Studies to become a more comprehensive curriculum for critical thinking.

ISBN 978–962–8908–34–9
80 pages, paperback, HK$30

 

No. 74

Challenges of Involving Student Voice in Curriculum Implementation: The Case of Hong Kong (Back to top)
Christy Wai-hung Ip & Ping-kwan Fok

Student voice in curriculum implementation has attracted many concerns in some Western countries recently. However, it has not aroused much attention in Hong Kong. This paper discusses the feasibility of initiating student voice in curriculum implementation of Hong Kong secondary schools. After reviewing the innovation of student voice from both conceptual and empirical perspectives, the authors critically comment on student voice in curriculum implementation in Hong Kong secondary schools. They note that even though there are barriers for such innovation in the Hong Kong context, student voice in curriculum implementation should be promoted for curriculum improvement.

ISBN 978–962–8908–36–3
52 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

No. 75

Hong Kong Students on Line: Digital Technologies and Reading in PISA 2009
(Back to top)
Esther Sui-chu Ho

Using the PISA 2009 database, this paper is the first to examine Hong Kong students’ digital performance in reading and to explore the nature and impact of students’ ICT attitudes and behavior at home and in school on their performance from an international perspective. Although almost all 15-year-old students have access to computer and the Internet at home and in school in Hong Kong, the discrepancy of digital reading literary is large, especially between schools (45.5%), which is higher than the OECD average of 38.0%. Results indicate that Hong Kong students who engage in computer use most frequently (every day or almost every day) for online forum, using e-mail, communicating with other students about schoolwork, and browsing the Internet for schoolwork perform better in digital reading. However, frequent users of computers who engage in maintaining blog and downloading entertainment materials perform slightly worse on average than moderate users.

ISBN 978–962–8908–42–4
88 pages, paperback, HK$30

 

No. 76

香港特區國民教育課程內容的偏差與缺失:《德育及國民教育科課程指引》的爭議
(回頁頂)
曾榮光

2012年夏天,香港社會環繞着國民教育政策引起激烈爭議,並掀起了近十萬群眾上街。結果,2012年9月27日,香港特區政府宣布《德育及國民教育科課程指引》「失效」,但卻容許中、小學繼續「各自表述」。在這次課程及教育政策爭議中,公眾議論的平台充斥着種種政治動機的揣測和政治陰謀的指控,而鮮有建基於香港社會政治現實和教育及教學理念的具體政策分析及討論。本文記錄了筆者在是次爭議中從社會、政治及教育等理念出發的一些管見。本文第一部分是筆者對經過為期四個月公眾諮詢後,在2012年4月30日公布的《德育及國民教育科課程指引》在課程理念及教學取向的批判。在這些批判公開發表以後,有幸得到香港科技大學講座教授鄭國漢的回應並提出五項商榷,故此本文第二部分就是記錄了筆者對鄭教授的商榷的回應。本文寫作的信念及目的是要指出,培養香港社會下一代公民與國民身分認同的教育任務,是不會因為特區政府一種含混過關式的「失效」但又可「各自表述」的政策「巧語」rhetoric而自動消失;身為負責任的本土教育工作者,我們實責無旁貸,必須嚴肅認真探討有關議題。

ISBN 978–962–8908–45–5
28頁,平裝,HK$20

 

No. 77

Development and Validation of the Chinese Sources of Parental Meaning Questionnaire
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Siu-ming To, Siu-mee Iu Kan, Kcon-wah Tsoi, & Ting-sam Chan

This research aimed to develop and validate a quantitative measure for the assessment of sources of parental meaning. A sample of 1,557 parents from 24 schools and three social welfare agencies in Hong Kong were recruited to fill out a questionnaire comprising 27 items about different aspects of sources of parental meaning and other validation measures. An exploratory factor analysis on 799 randomly selected parents yielded a fourfold factor structure with 22 items. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining 758 parents demonstrated a good model fit. The factors revealed four categories of Chinese sources of parental meaning, including: (1) the degree to which parents emphasize the nurturing of their children’s psychosocial growth (Child Nurturing); (2) the degree to which parents affirm the social values of being parents (Instrumental Consideration); (3) the degree to which parents attach importance to the strengthening of the couple relationship (Marital Relationship); and (4) the degree to which parents underline their positive personal development through childrearing (Self-enhancement). The findings show that these four factors were negatively associated with parental discontent and positively associated with parental efficacy. This scale can open up new directions for theory development, practice, and research.

ISBN 978–962–8908–46–2
52 pages, paperback, HK$20

 

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