1995．第23卷第1期（Vol. 23 No. 1）．pp. 1738
Education Reform in the United States: The Conceptions of Holmes Group and Reforms and Michigan Schools
八十年代，美國在世界經濟競爭中的地位削弱。其原因被認為與教育的質素不高有關。為提高教育的質素，美國展開了宏大的教育改革。初期的改革以提高學生成績為重點。八十年代後期，重點特為學校體制的改革。本文在對美國密執安州學校改革評估研究的基礎上，介紹該州的學校以 HOLMES GROUP的宗旨和構想為指導，在過去幾年裡進行的教育改革實踐。HOLMES GROUP提出教育革要同時注意提升教師和教育的質素。要提升教育質素，需要改善教師的工作環境，提高教師的專業地位，並且要重新建立學校體制。密執安州學校的改革實踐具有五個特點：（一）重新組建學校的組織結構；（二）獲取社區支持；（三）教師角色多元化；（四）改革教學；（五）教師參與實地研究及探索。
1980s saw a weakening economic state of the United States in the globalized economy. School education was seen as part of the problems and part of the solutions. To enhance the quality of schooling, education reform unfolded in U.S.A. This article examines reforms in the Professional Development Schools in Michigan guided by Holmes Group's two reports which advocate for improvement of the quality of teachers as well as the quality of their education. Its principles delineate an improved working environment, and genuine teaching profession in school. The Professional Development Schools are found to retain characteristics of (a) restructured school governance; (b) local area support; (c) redesigned teacher work; (d) innovative teaching and learning; and (e) research and inquiry by teachers.