Education Journal



中國化與本土化──台灣族群認同運動及其教育上的影響

1994.第21卷第2期及第22卷第1期(Vol. 21 No. 2 & Vol. 22 No. 1).pp. 127–137

 

中國化與本土化──台灣族群認同運動及其教育上的影響

Nationalization and Indigenization — Ethnic Identity Movements and Their Educational Impact in Taiwan

楊聰榮(Tsung-Rong YANG)

摘要

目前台灣的教育正在悄然地進行變革,各方意見雖然不同,變革的步伐亦不一致,但是變革的方向卻是清晰可辨的。這個過程我們可以用「本土化」加以概括。例如在各級中小學教育增加認識台灣的課程,各縣市紛紛編輯介紹各縣市的風土人情的「鄉土文化教材」,以及施行母語教育等等。這些有關教育內容上的變革,都是和現在在台灣輿論中所強調本土化的言論是一致的。為了方便討論,本文稱之為「本土文化教育」,以下的討論即以此為主要的論述對象。

本文主要的目的是在指出這個本土化教育的特色,以及台灣出現本土文化教育的意義為何,並且把這個本土文化教育的發展趨勢放在整個社會脈絡和歷史脈絡來考察,為什麼會產生這樣的趨勢,它是在什麼樣的歷史脈絡下發展出來的,藉以指出這個教育變革的發展方向和台灣社會戰後所經歷的歷史過程是習習相關的。文中說明教育本土化的方向和目前台灣的族群認同運動的發展趨勢較為接近,而為了說明族群認同運動的發展趨勢,則以「中國化」和「本土化」的互相角力而轉折出的方向來討論。透過討論才會對於台灣這幾年本土文化教育抬頭的方向及原因有所理解。

Abstract

ln the recent decade there is a disputable but distinguishable development in indigenization in education in Taiwan. They can at least be classified into the following categories: Taiwanese History Education, Regional Culture Education and Mother Tongue Language Education. Taiwanese History Education means teaching the history of Taiwan instead of mentioning only a little of it in Chinese History. Regional Culture Education means teaching local affairs. Mother Tongue Language Education means teaching their own ethnic language in school. All of these are quite new in Taiwan. Now more and more people support the development of indigenization in the educational domain. Public opinion with regard to this trend also underwent a manifest transformation from rejection to approval during the past several years. This paper will introduce the characteristics of this development in education in Taiwan and try to explore the factors contributing to this development from a historical perspective. This development was strongly propelled by the aura of ethnic identity movements which aim at resurrecting the ethnic identities of local ethnic groups. In order to understand those identity movements, the cultural formation in postwar Formosa should be included in the discussion. Those identity movements mentioned above could be regarded as a response to nationalization. Understanding the nationalization process is really the key to comprehend the process of indigenization in the social context in Taiwan. The conversion from total nationalization to indigenization in education will be described in this paper.