Education Journal



市場經濟體制下中國教育的發展趨勢

1994.第21卷第2期及第22卷第1期(Vol. 21 No. 2 & Vol. 22 No. 1).pp. 123–126

 

市場經濟體制下中國教育的發展趨勢

Development of Education in China under the Market Economic System

周洪宇(Hongyu ZHOU)

摘要

中國共產黨第十四次代表大會明確確定建立社會主義市場經濟體制,這一決定在當代中國社會發展的歷史進程中具有劃時代的意義,不僅會對中國社會政治、經濟和文化諸方面產生重要影響,也將給中國現存的教育帶來深刻的變化。市場經濟體制下中國教育的發展趨勢問題,正引起中外教育界人仕的密切關注。本文認為,隨著市場經濟的發展,中國教育將出現以下十大轉變:教育將由以往單純地為政治服務轉變為經濟建設和社會進步服務;傳統的升學教育將轉變為適應市場經濟發展需要的質素教育;課程內容將由以往的陳舊空疏轉變為新穎實用;教育結構由過去的單一封閉轉變為多元開放;以往的國家單一辦學將轉變為以國家辦學為主、社會各界共同參與辦學;傳統集權型的統一計劃管理將轉變為分權型的各級自主管理;過去單一的國家投資將轉變為多渠道的籌措教育經費;以往國家統招統分將轉變為學校自行招生、學生自主擇業;傳統的以人治教(校)將轉變為以法治教(校);教育合作與交流將由以往的立足國內轉變為更為重視國際交往。上述轉變與近年來中國整個社會的大變革、大轉型呈“同步狀態”,是中國社會由傳統走向現代的集中體現,它昭示著中國教育在二十一世紀來臨之際將會出現一個巨大的發展。

Abstract

The fourteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China formally endorsed a market economy for the country, which was a momentous decision for contemporary China. The policy produces not only important changes in China's political, economic, and cultural arenas, but also complex repercussions in her educational scene. The development of education in a market economy has caught the close attention of both inside and outside China. This paper predicts ten major changes. First, instead of catering to political needs as was the case in the past, education will also serve the needs of economic and social development. Second, quality education which answers the needs of a market economy will replace the traditional examination-oriented system. Third, curriculum contents will be innovative as well as practical. Fourth, the education system will become diversified. Fifth, the state will be joined by various social sectors in offering educational opportunities. Sixth, management of education will become decentralized. Seventh, in addition to investment from the state, there will be multiple sources of funding. Eighth, the state will no longer monopolize student rectuitment and job assignment. Ninth, management by clout will be replaced by management by law. Lastly, educational exchange and collaboration will develop beyond the boundary of the country. These changes keep pace with the current overall reform in China, and pave the way for the huge development of China's education in the twenty-first century.