Education Journal



八十年代中國教育的最新進展與九十年代的展望

1994.第21卷第2期及第22卷第1期(Vol. 21 No. 2 & Vol. 22 No. 1).pp. 87–103

 

八十年代中國教育的最新進展與九十年代的展望

China's Educational Development in the 80's and its Prospect in the 90's

胡瑞文(Rui-Wen HU)

摘要

中國教育的基本國情是人口眾多、人均自然資源相對短缺,經濟、技術發展水平較低,人均國民生產總值仍居世界後列;同時,學齡人口壓力大,給教育的發展帶來了很大的困難。

80年代以來。中國堅持教育發展與改革並重的政策,各級各類教育取得了展足的發展。1992年,全國學前教育兒童入園數比1980年增長了1.1倍;小學在校生由於適齡兒童數的減少、降低了16.6%,但學齡兒童入學率增長了 4個百分點,達到97%以上;中等教育結構改革初見成效,尤其是高中階段,職業技術教育與普通高中校生之比由1980年的1:4.05上升至1992年的1:0.95;本專科等高等教育在校生同期增長了91%,而研究生教育在校生則增加3.3倍。目前教育投資短缺,教師工資偏低,嚴重制約著教師隊伍穩定和教學質量的提高,是中國教育事業發展的最大困難。最近,中國政府頒佈了《中國教育改革和發展綱要》,要求各級政府增加對教育的撥款,在今後幾年內使全國各3級財政總支出中教育經費所佔的比例,由目前的12.7%提高到15%;並逐步使國家教育經費佔國民生產總值的比例由目前的3%提高到4%。

面對變化了的經濟和社會環境,中國政府重新修正的教育發展主要目標是:初等教育階段適齡兒童都能按時入學;在佔人口85%的地區普及初級中等教育;15 週歲人口的文盲率控制在1%左右;在大城市和沿海經濟發達地區積極普及高中階段教育;在全國範圍內大力發展不同形式的中等職業技術教育;使高等教育呈規模穩步增長。在本世紀末中國教育將能實現人人受教育的祟高目標。

Abstract

Education in China takes place in a national environment characterized by a huge population, a scarcity of per capita natural resources, a lower level of economic and technological development, and a low-ranking per capita GNP. The large school-age population has resulted in China's largest educational enterprise in the world. However, the lack of resources has hindered the development of education.

Since the eighties, the policy that puts emphasis on education development and reform has produced results in various sectors of education. In 1992, the number of children enrolled in pre-school institutions increased by 1.1 times of that in 1980. The total number of primary students dropped by 16.6% due to a drop in the number of school-age children, but the number of students entering primary school rose by 4%, making up a total of 97% of children at the school-entering age. The results of the restructuring of secondary education began to unfold, especially at the upper secondary level, where the ratio between vocational students and secondary students increased from 1:4.05 in 1980 to 1:0.95 in 1992. During the same period, the number of students at degree and sub-degree level rose by 91%, while the number of postgraduate students increased 3.3 folds. At present, the limited budgets for education and the low teachers' salaries have affected the stability of the teaching workforce and the quality of education. The recent "Program of Educational Reform and Development" promulgated by the Chinese government demands that authorities at various levels increase their investment in education from the present 12.7% to 15% of the total national expenditure in the next few years, and gradually increase the proportion of educational expenditure to GNP from 3% at present to 4% in the future.

Economic changes since the beginning of the nineties have led to revised aims of educational development by the Chinese government. Every school-age child will be given a place in school. Junior secondary education will be expanded. The illiteracy rate among those below fifteen will be strictly controlled. Upper secondary education in the major cities and coastal regions will undergo rapid growth. Different modes of middle-level vocational education will be developed across the country. The scope and quality of higher education will continue to be improved. In short, education in China will develop towards the lofty goal of education for all at the turn of the century.