Education Journal



台灣課程改革脈絡中教師專業發展的回顧與展望

2019.第47卷第1期(Vol. 47 No. 1).pp. 49–69
 

台灣課程改革脈絡中教師專業發展的回顧與展望

Teachers’ Professional Development in the Context of Curriculum Reforms in Taiwan: Retrospect and Prospect

洪詠善(Yung-Shan HUNG)

摘要

自1949年以降,台灣中小學經歷多次課程綱要的修訂;2019年台灣實施《十二年國民基本教育課程綱要》,隨着課程改革,教師角色論述及其專業發展政策亦面臨再建構的挑戰和機會。本文旨在分析課程修訂脈絡中,教師專業發展政策的演進和展望。運用歷史研究和文件分析,蒐集國民義務教育實施以來,課程與教師專業發展相關政策文件和實徵研究的文獻,首先探析台灣中小學課程修訂脈絡和課程改革的論述中,教師專業發展政策的演進及問題;其次,以教師專業知識動態系統架構,提出教師專業發展和課程實踐的展望。

本文歸結課程改革與教師專業發展的政策和論述是相互回應並交互影響的。教師角色從忠實傳遞者到多元的專業角色,教師專業發展政策從強規範到協作支持的多元化發展。在《十二年國民基本教育課程綱要》以學習者為主體、素養導向、連貫統整、學校本位課程發展、多元適性、協作共好等論述下,課程實踐與教師專業發展應透過「法規制度」設計和中介,促進動態系統的有機連結;再者,為落實素養導向的課程實踐,應開展自發創生和協作共學的學習網絡。課程實踐即教師專業發展,期望透過協作支持系統建置課程實踐的鷹架,以持續推進教師專業發展的動能。

關鍵詞:課程改革;課程政策;教師專業發展;課程綱要;《十二年國民基本教育課程綱要》

Abstract

Taiwan has revised national curriculum guidelines for elementary schools and secondary schools several times since 1949. It will implement the Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education from 2019. In the process of curriculum reform, the role of teachers and the policy regarding their professional development would undergo deconstruction and reconstruction. This article aims to analyze the context and discourse of the curriculum reform, and to explore the policies and discourse of teachers’ professional development in Taiwan by analyzing related documents and literature. Secondly, with the aid of the framework of dynamics of teacher knowledge, the article looks ahead to the curriculum practice and teachers’ professional development.

Results indicate reciprocal influences between the curriculum reform and teachers’ professional development. The role of teachers changed from curriculum delivery to diverse professional roles, and the policy of their professional development from strong regulation to collaborative development. The main discourses of the 2019 Curriculum Guidelines include: learner-centered, competency-driven, coherent and integrated, school-based, diversified and adaptive, and cooperation for common good. Referring to the dynamic system of teachers’ professional knowledge, the programs of curriculum practice and teachers’ professional development should promote the connection of dynamic systems through the design and intermediary of “regulatory systems.” Besides, to implement the competency-driven curriculum practice, spontaneous and collaborative learning networks should be developed. Curriculum practice is also the professional development of teachers. Through establishing collaborative supporting systems for scaffolding curriculum practice, the capacity of teachers will have sustainable promotion.

Keywords: curriculum reform; curriculum policy; teacher professional development; curriculum guidelines; Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education