Education Journal



香港新高中課程改革下的融合教育實踐困境

2016.第44卷第2期(Vol. 44 No. 2).pp. 183–217
 

香港新高中課程改革下的融合教育實踐困境

Dilemmas of Inclusive Practice Under the New Senior Secondary Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong

余玉珍、尹弘飈(Yuk-Chun YU & Hong-Biao YIN)

摘要

2001年,香港以《學會學習:課程發展路向》文件展開了全面而根本的課程改革(下稱課改)。2009年實施「三三四」新高中課改,更掀起了學制、課程及考試評核制度的巨大改變。此外,隨着1997年「融合教育先導計劃」實施,有特殊教育需要的學生就讀於主流學校正式開展。2008年,香港中學全面落實「全校參與」模式的融合教育,其時正值中學面臨適齡學生人數下降的「殺校」危機、排山倒海的高中課改,以及教學語言微調政策等重要改變,使得新高中課改中融合教育的實施變得極為複雜。究其本質,融合教育中欣賞多元與主流教育中追求卓越難以共融,因此在新高中課改中落實融合教育面臨重重困難。本文聚焦探究新高中課改下融合教育的實施概況及所面對困境:首先簡述普及高中教育下發展融合教育的現況與困難;其次探討新高中課改下的融合實踐困境;最後分析化解困境的取向,建議必須從全納教育革新教育制度與課程重置的理念着眼,照顧所有學習者的不同需要。綜合而言,高中課改帶來學習差異擴大、教與學壓力倍增等問題尚待處理;加上融合生向弱勢學校傾斜、教師缺乏融合教育能力,且新高中課程並未解決融合生的不利處境等,都突顯了在高中課改中落實融合教育的困難與挑戰。

關鍵詞:課程改革;課程實施;融合教育實踐;困境

Abstract

In 2001, Hong Kong started a comprehensive and fundamental curriculum reform through introducing Learning to Learn: The Way Forward in Curriculum. In 2009, the New Senior Secondary (NSS) curriculum reform was implemented. The reform involved changes in the structure of educational system, curriculum and the examination system. In addition, integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997. Students with special educational needs (SEN) were given equal opportunities to access to mainstream education. In 2008, Hong Kong secondary schools began to implement the inclusive education policy with whole-school approach. At the same time, secondary schools were facing declining enrolment of school-aged children, enormous NSS curriculum reform, and the fine-tuning medium-of-instruction policy. Implementing inclusive education under NSS of Hong Kong became even more difficult. The discrepancies between “celebrating diversity” of inclusion and the elite-based educational practices have been known to be key barriers to implementing inclusive education in Hong Kong. This article focused on the situations and dilemmas of inclusive practice under NSS curriculum reform in Hong Kong. Firstly, this article introduced the situations and problems of inclusive practice under NSS; secondly, it analyzed the dilemmas of inclusive practice under the NSS curriculum reform; finally, the article analyzed the orientation of resolving the dilemmas of inclusive practice — enhancing quality education for all by leading to wider-ranging curricula and instructional strategies that contribute to catering for learner diversity. Overall, teachers and their students are under dual pressure because the NSS curriculum reform widens individual differences in schools. Moreover, SEN students are particularly vulnerable in disadvantaged schools while teachers are incapable of teaching them. Implementing inclusive education in the NSS curriculum reform of Hong Kong is full of difficulties and challenges.

Keywords: curriculum reform; curriculum implementation; inclusive practice; dilemma