Education Journal



運用學習理論之跨層次與雙面兼具觀點分析台灣大學生最適學習路徑之研究

2016.第44卷第1期(Vol. 44 No. 1).pp. 51–77
 

運用學習理論之跨層次與雙面兼具觀點分析台灣大學生最適學習路徑之研究

A Study on Application of Cross-level and Ambidexterity Perspectives of Learning Theory to the Exploration of Optimal Learning Paths of College Students in Taiwan

何希慧、彭耀平(Shi-Huei HO & Yao-Ping PENG)

摘要

本研究旨在運用學習理論,探討組織學習與學生學習間的跨層次模式,並了解學生學習方法與學習成效間的關係。過去組織學習和學生學習的相關研究指出,學習是持續的能力建構過程,會隨着環境的變化,適時進行調適、整合並重新配置內外部知能與資源,以維持良好的組織績效與學習成效。然而,很少研究從跨層次觀點探討學校層次的組織學習與個人層次的學生學習間知識傳遞的效果,以提供校務研究者或學校主管建構組織學習氛圍的方向與建議。因此,本研究針對16所台灣高等教育機構進行抽樣調查,收集584份教師問卷和2,342份學生問卷,藉由線性階層模式分析、階層迴歸分析及結構方程模式來分析資料。研究結果發現:(1)組織學習能強化學生在探索型學習和應用型學習的知識獲取;(2)探索型及應用型學習與學生學習成效間呈現U型曲線關係;(3)學習雙面兼具情境的加入,有助於結合兩種不同的學習活動,並增強學生的學習效果;和(4)「應用型→探索型→認知獲益」與「應用型→探索型→非認知獲益」具有較佳的總路徑效果。據此,本研究針對高等教育機構和學生學習提出具體建議及未來研究方向,以供相關研究者參考。

關鍵詞:高等教育;組織學習;學生學習成效;雙元學習

Abstract

Based on learning theory, this study explored cross-level model between organizational learning and student learning to understand the relationship between students’ learning approaches and their outcomes. Previous literatures on organizational and/or student learning have emphasized that learning refers to constant process of capability construction in appropriately adapting, integrating and reconfiguring various knowledge and resources to match changing environments, in order to maintain superior organizational performance and/or learning outcomes. However, few studies adopted a cross-level perspective to explore effects of knowledge transfer between college-level organizational learning and individual-level student learning, and to provide meaningful directions and suggestions of constructions of organizational learning climate for institutional researchers or administrators. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze a sample of 584 professors and 2,342 students from 16 Taiwanese higher education institutions by hierarchical linear modeling, hierarchical regression, and structural equation modeling. Results showed that: (a) organizational learning could increase knowledge acquisition in explorative and exploitative learning; (b) the relationship between explorative learning, exploitative learning and student learning outcomes represented U-shaped curves; (c) ambidextrous learning was helpful to facilitate combination of explorative and exploitative learning activities and to enhance student learning outcomes; and (d) “exploitative → explorative → cognitive gains” and “exploitative → explorative → non-cognitive gains” have higher total path effects. Based on the results, specific directions and implications for higher education institutions and student learning as well as future research were suggested.

Keywords: higher education; organizational learning; student learning outcomes; dual learning