Education Journal


2016.第44卷第1期(Vol. 44 No. 1).pp. 1–24


The Development and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Global Awareness Scale for Junior High School Students

陳貞君、楊淑晴(Jen-Jun CHEN & Shu-Ching YANG)





This study aimed to develop a global awareness scale for junior high school students in Taiwan and to validate the scale by performing exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multi-group invariance. The preliminary scale was developed based on the relevant literature. In the first phase, 250 valid samples collected by purposive sampling were used to perform item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability analysis. In the second sample, consisting of 670 junior high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to check for model fitness and cross-validation. Finally, the different levels of multi-group invariance were examined. The results showed that the scale, containing 10 items with two factors, exhibited a good model fit after model modification and had proper composite reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Measurement invariance was confirmed for junior high school students across genders and grades.

Keywords: global awareness; exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; cross-validation analysis; multi-group invariance