Education Journal



香港學生在歷屆學生能力國際評估計劃的閱讀表現對中文科課程和教學的啟示

2015.第43卷第1期(Vol. 43 No. 1).pp. 59–84
 

香港學生在歷屆學生能力國際評估計劃的閱讀表現對中文科課程和教學的啟示

Implications From Hong Kong Students’ Reading Performance in Programme for International Student Assessment on the Chinese Language Curriculum and Teaching

劉潔玲(Kit-Ling LAU)

摘要

本文主要從香港學生在歷屆學生能力國際評估計劃(PISA)的閱讀評估結果,分析十年來香港學生閱讀素養的強弱項和相關的個人及教學因素。PISA的數據顯示,香港學生在歷屆閱讀測試都表現良好,自PISA 2006開始更有明顯進步,學生表現最出色的是反思與評價,進步幅度最大的則是綜合與理解,他們閱讀連續文本的表現比非連續文本出色。從影響因素的角度看,香港學生有良好的閱讀動機,但在策略運用和後設認知方面,表現卻不理想;學生普遍滿意課堂秩序,亦有很多傳統文學閱讀和解釋文本的活動,但他們認為教師的激勵和支持不足,而且甚少有機會學習和閱讀非連續文本。本文從傳統的文化因素和近年香港的課程改革兩個角度分析,指出PISA的結果肯定了儒家文化和傳統閱讀教學模式對學生學習有正面作用,而課程改革後中文科加強了能力培訓和對課外閱讀的重視,有助進一步提升學生的閱讀表現。然而,PISA的結果同時反映出香港一直忽略了策略教學和非文學作品的閱讀教學,而且教學模式仍偏重教師主導,不利發展學生自主學習的能力,亦未有特別照顧男生以及能力最高和最弱學生在閱讀能力發展的需要。本文就以上幾點不足提出了一些具體建議,以期香港的語文教育工作者思考如何進一步提升學生的閱讀素養。

關鍵詞:學生能力國際評估計劃;閱讀素養;中文科課程;閱讀教學

Abstract

Using data from the past PISA cycles, this article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of Hong Kong students’ reading literacy, as well as the personal and instructional factors that may affect their reading literacy in the past ten years. The findings indicated Hong Kong students obtained an overall strong performance on the reading assessment of all PISA cycles. Obvious improvements were observed since PISA 2006. Among the three reading processes, Hong Kong students were relatively good at reflecting and evaluating, and obtained the largest improvement in integrating and interpreting. They performed much better on continuous texts than on non-continuous texts. Among various personal and instructional factors, it was found that Hong Kong students had a positive reading motivation but their strategy use and metacognition were unsatisfactory. While students perceived a more positive classroom disciplinary climate in their reading lessons and were frequently involved in traditional literature reading and text interpretation activities, they perceived a lower degree of teacher stimulation and scaffolding and had fewer chances to learn non-continuous texts compared with the OECD average. The findings of PISA are discussed in the light of traditional cultural factors and recent curriculum reform in Hong Kong. On the one hand, the findings support the positive effects of Confucian culture and the traditional approach of Chinese reading instruction on student learning. The emphasis of ability development and extracurricular reading in curriculum reform has further enhanced their reading development. On the other hand, the findings suggest that insufficient strategy instruction and teaching on non-literature reading, and the teacher-centered approach of Chinese language classes may hinder students’ development of self-regulated learning. Moreover, the needs of high achievers and weak students are not catered well in current instructional practices. Suggestions for language educators to further improve Hong Kong students’ reading literacy are discussed.

Keywords: PISA; reading literacy; Chinese language curriculum; reading instruction