Education Journal



康有為《大同書》的嬰幼兒公養公教思想

2014.第42卷第2(Vol. 42 No. 2).pp. 73–93
 

康有為《大同書》的嬰幼兒公養公教思想

Infant Public Nursing and Public Teaching Ideology of Kang Youwei’s The Book of the Great Unity

黃文樹(Wen-Shu HUANG)

摘要

康有為天資瑰異,蒙光緒帝賞識,延統籌維新變法運動。著有《新學偽經考》、《孔子改制考》、《大同書》、《長興學記》、《康南海先生自編年譜》、《春秋董氏學》、《七次上書彙編》、《戊戌奏稿》等書傳世。他常開風氣之先,史家把他定位為「大教育家」。其《大同書》思想根源於儒家《春秋》三世說、〈禮運〉篇大同觀、西方空想社會主義,以及佛教思想。書中論述了破除家庭制度、提倡男女平等和婦女解放、廢除私有財產、改革教養制度等主張,嬰幼兒公養公教構想,便是改革教養制度的重要環節。該書設計公養公教的嬰幼兒教養機構──育嬰院,並針對其院址選擇、教養宗旨、建築設備、教養人員、教養工作、教學方法、管控制度等,提出諸多規範,涉及嬰幼兒照顧與教育的方方面面。雖然其可行性受到質疑,但這套清末民初的幼兒教育思維,與同時代中、外幼兒教育觀比較,實具有新穎性、超前性和理想性。

關鍵詞:康有為;《大同書》;嬰幼兒;公養公教

Abstract

Kang Youwei has marvelous talent. Thanks to the appreciation of Emperor Guangxu, he continued to coordinate the Reform Movement of 1898. He wrote The New Study of Wei Jing, The Study of Confucius’s Reform, The Book of the Great Unity, Self-compiled Chronicle of Kang Youwei, The Study of Dong Zhongshu’ Chunqiu fanlu, Compilation of Seven Letters, Documents Drafts in 1898 and other. He was an opinion leader and historians praised him as the “great educator.” The concept of The Book of the Great Unity originates from Three Generations Theory in Chunqiu, Great Unity view in “Evolutions of Rites,” Western utopian socialism and Buddhist thought. The book describes the views on eradication of family system, promotion of gender equality and women emancipation, abolishment of private property, and reform of education system. Infant public nursing and public teaching is an important section in reforming education system. The book advocates the establishment of an Infant Institute for public nursing and public teaching, with various requirements on aspects of infant care and education, including its location selection, education purpose, construction equipment, education officers, education work, teaching methods and control system. Though its feasibility is a query, this set of infant education thought in Late Qing and Early Republic of China, when compared with domestic and foreign infant education views in the same period of time, is really novel, advanced and ideal.

Keywords: Kang Youwei; The Book of the Great Unity; infant; public nursing and public teaching