Education Journal


2014.第42卷第2(Vol. 42 No. 2).pp. 23–50


Examining the Relationship Between Cognitive Strategies, Calmness, Classroom Concentration, and Academic Achievement: Taking a Vocational School in Taiwan as an Example

楊雅婷、陳奕樺(Ya-Ting YANG & I-Hua CHAN)





Students’ concentration in the classroom is fundamental to understanding what teachers instruct. However, in this era of too much audiovisual stimulus, low classroom concentration of students is an urgent problem to be resolved. After reviewing the literature of attention training, this study proposed a model to explain the relationship between cognitive strategies, calmness, classroom concentration, and academic achievement. Also the mediation effect of classroom concentration was examined. A total of 254 senior vocational students in one vocational high school in Kaohsiung participated in this study. To measure students’ calmness, heart rate variability analysis was used in three classes of physics. After model comparison, one model that had better fit index (Akaike information criterion) was chosen and was further examined. Results showed that the model fit well with empirical data and all hypotheses were supported: (a) the more cognitive strategies were used, the higher classroom concentration; (b) the more calmness, the higher classroom concentration; (c) the higher classroom concentration, the higher academic achievement; (d) the mediation effect of classroom concentration was found in both the relationship between cognitive strategies and academic achievement as well as between calmness and academic achievement. This study not only suggested that cognitive strategies and calmness positively influence classroom concentration, but also found that the effect of the former is larger than the latter. Suggestions for future studies were also provided.

Keywords: cognitive strategies; calmness; classroom concentration; academic achievement; heart rate variability