Asian Journal of Counselling


2010.第17卷第1及2期(Vol. 17 Nos. 1 & 2).pp. 1–22


Different Developmental Trajectories for Two Forms of Student Aggression

馮麗姝(Annis Lai-Chu FUNG)




This is a pioneer study on the developmental trajectories of proactive and reactive aggression in Hong Kong. Previous studies have questioned whether proactive and reactive aggression can be meaningfully distinguished, and whether there are clear gender or age differences in these two forms of aggression. This cross-sectional study tests the hypothesis that proactive and reactive aggression differ across ages, that males in particular will show higher levels of proactive aggression, and that a two-factor (reactive-proactive) model of aggression provides a better fit to the data than a one-factor (general) model. The Reactive-Proactive Questionnaire was administered to 5,615 male and female schoolchildren of 11–15 years old. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor model was a significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Proactive aggression increased significantly with age in males but not in females, whereas reactive aggression showed no gender difference and only a minimal age increase. Results challenge the notion that reactive and proactive aggression are indistinguishable forms of aggression and instead suggest the presence of meaningful differences between these aggression forms.