Education Journal



「人民的大學」:1949年新政權下中國大學身分之建構──以北京大學為個案

2010.第38卷第1期(Vol. 38 No. 1).pp. 71–94

 

「人民的大學」:1949年新政權下中國大學身分之建構──以北京大學為個案

The Identity Construction of Universities in the Chinese Mainland Under the New Regime Since 1949: A Narrative Study on Peking University

羅雲(Yun LUO)

摘要

在中國大陸,1949年之後,國家政權更迭,大學發生了很大變化,這一變化影響至今。把握了這段時期大學的變化,就能理解今日大學的形態及當下大學種種變革的基礎。本研究用歷史敘事的方法,以北京大學為個案,探討了1949年中國共產黨建立新政權之後,中國大學身分的變化與建構。研究發現,由於新政權實行高度集中的計劃經濟,市場缺失,所以建國之初中國大學的身分特徵純粹在國家與大學的互動中建構。1949年之後,經過國家對大學的接管改造、院系調整等措施,大學被納入到既有的政治、思想框架中,成為人民陣營之一部分,並進入了國家領域的範疇,成為為國家、為人民、為社會主義建設服務的重要工具。由此,其身分也從原來的舊式大學轉為走向極具政治意涵的「人民的大學」。

關鍵詞:中國大學;身分;北京大學;敘事

Abstract

With the transfer of state power since 1949, universities in the Chinese mainland experienced great changes, and their influences are still there. Understanding the changes of these universities during this transitional period is important in understanding the current status of today’s universities in the Chinese mainland as well as the recent reforms they have undergone. This study adopts a historical narrative method to explore the identity changes and new identity construction of universities in the Chinese mainland since the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) founded the new nation, with Peking University as a case in point. Research indicates that due to the highly centralized planned economy adopted by the new state power and the absence of market forces, the identity of universities in the beginning of the new China was constructed amid the interactive forces of state and university. Since 1949, after takeover, restructuring and other measures by the state, universities were incorporated into the existing political and ideological frameworks and joined the mainstream socialist camp. Since then, universities in the Chinese mainland became tools to serve the country, serve the people, and serve the socialist construction. Accordingly, their identity changed from old-fashioned universities to “people’s universities” laden with heavy political meanings.

Keywords: universities in the Chinese mainland; identity; Peking University; narrative