1990．第18卷第1期（Vol. 18 No. 1）．pp. 4761
Conception of School Effectiveness and Models of School Evaluation: A Dynamic Perspective
Using the input-output approach, the paper distinguishes school effectiveness from school efficiency and classifies school effectiveness into four categories: school's technical effectiveness, social effectiveness, internal economic effectiveness, and external economic effectiveness. In order to explore the issue of evaluation of school effectiveness, the paper introduces seven evaluation models: the goal model, the system-resource model, the internal process model, the strategic-constituencies model, the legitimacy model, the organizational learning model, and the ineffectiveness model. All these models have their own strengths and limitations. Past attempt in integrating these multiple models is questioned because of contradictory multiple criteria. The dynamic model of effectiveness developed in this paper integrates the important characteristics of the integrated model and the contradiction model and reconceptualizes school effectiveness from a dynamic view. This dynamic model in itself is not an evaluation model but can provide a perspective to consider the strengths of the evaluation models. It suggests that the evaluation models may be arranged in a hierarchy. The organizational learning model should be the major model and the others are the sub-model. Multiple models are needed in evaluation of school effectiveness if we want to known how well a school performs in different aspects of the dynamic process of struggling for survival.