Educational Research Journal



家庭背景及學校政策與家長參與子女教育的關係

2000.第15卷第1期(Vol. 15 No. 1).pp. 275–300
 

家庭背景及學校政策與家長參與子女教育的關係

The Relationships between Family Factors, Institutional Policies and Parental Involvement in Children's Education

何瑞珠(Esther Sui-Chu HO)

摘要

透過「簡政放權」促進家長參與,是近二、三十年來西方教育改革的主要趨勢(e.g. Beattie, 1985; Brown, 1991, 1995)。在香港,隨著教育統籌委員會第七號報告書建議全面推展校本管理,促進「家長參與」已成為決策者、教育工作者、家長及研究者十分關注的課題。本文將會對家長參與的本質和影響,提出系統的分析及評論。第一節澄清家長參與的概念,筆者依據理論和實證的研究,建構出一個綜合的模式包涵三大類家長參與的範疇。第二節分析家庭背景及機構因素如何影響家長參與子女的教育。第三節會透過一個實證研究,考察香港小學校長對不同類型的「家長參與」的期望及實踐,並分析何種家庭因素及機構因素影響家長參與的程度。

關鍵詞:家長參與;權力下放;家校協作

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify the nature of six types of parental involvement and to identify the most important institutional and family factors that are related to different types of parental involvement in an Asian Educational System, Hong Kong. First, I will clarify the expectation and actualization of different types of parental involvement in children education. Second, I will examine to what extent and how family socioeconomic status, family structures, and family resources associated with parental involvement. Finally, I will investigate whether decentralization policies including school based management reform and establishment of parent teacher association affects the level of parental involvement in Hong Kong.

Borrowing Epstein's six types model, this study have found that "Parenting" and "Communication" was the most important parental involvement activities perceived by Hong Kong elementary school principals. The establishment of parent teacher association and the implementation of school based management have facilitated "school based involvement". Families from working class and new immigrants have difficulties in all the six types of involvement. Yet it is the attitude of the principal toward home school collaboration appears to have the greatest impact on all types of parental involvement.