Education Journal



關於香港學制的一些原則性反省

1989.第17卷第2期(Vol. 17 No. 2).pp. 186–192

 

關於香港學制的一些原則性反省

On the Problems of Hong Kong School System: An Anaylsis from the Perspective of Some Basic Principles

李瑞全(Shui-Chuen LEE)

摘要

本文分別從教育目標、社會公平性、教育多元化、學制之基本原則與考核等方面分析學制所應遵守的一些原則,並進一步依據這些原則評論有關的香港學制中的問題。學制基本上是一個達致某些教育目標的工具,它必須服務於後者,不應為了諸如經濟的考慮而安排學制,壓抑了培養兒童的人格與技能的教育目標,香港中學不以母語而以英文為教學語言乃是經濟以致政治效益為害教育的一個例子。在社會公平方面,學制不可助長兒童的文化資本的差異,否則有違教育的公平性,教統會第三號報告書所提議的學校私營化即有這個可能性,但尚須進一步考慮整體的教育效益是往那一方向,才可以論斷這個計劃是否會強化兒童的文化資本上的差異;至於分流方面,校際之間的分析很容易變成文化資本的反映,校內的分流則沒有理據可憑。在行政角度上,學制應一元化,但學校與課程卻應多元化。學制的基本原則是為兒童服務,因此必須配合兒童的生理、心理與智能的發展,讓兒童有充份的成長與發展的餘地,減少考試的關卡,以免造成不必要的考試壓力及日後進升的機會,在這個原則下,目前的預科並無存在之必要。同樣,考核應以結業式為主,因為,淘汰式的考核無可避免造成教學的考試取向,影響深遠,香港的預科即為一例,因此預科應當取消,而大學學制的爭論也自動化解了。

Abstract

This paper gives an analysis of some of the guiding principles of the construction of school system from the perspectives of educational aims, social justice, pluralistic education, the basic principle of service to the needs of children and the forms of examination and then discusses some of the problems related to the school system of Hong Kong. Basically, school system is just a means for the achievement of educational aims, it should serve the latter and should not let other considerations such as economic efficiency distort our educational aims of providing an education for the healthy development of the personality, understanding and certain daily skill of the child. The use of English rather than the mother tongue language as teaching in the high school of Hong Kong is an example of the endless harm to the majority of high school children caused by the socalled economic and political consideration. In the realm of social justice, school system should not propagate the inequality of cultural capital between children of different social background, otherwise it will be against the justice of education. The scheme of direct grant for the privatization of high school proposed by the Third Roport of the Education Commission has to face precisely this charge of imputting social injustice into the Hong Kong education system. However, the precise direction of the flow of educational efficiency as a result of the implementation of the scheme has to be estimated before we could give a correct verdict on the issue. As to the old problem of streaming, the streaming between different types of school is easily falling prey to the inequality of cultural capital between children, while the streaming between majors lacks any rational ground. From the point of educational administration school system should be unified, while pluralistic schools and curricula should be encouraged to cope with the needs of the child in relation to his physiological, psychological and intellectual development, which is the basic principle of serving the needs of the child. Consequently, the fewer the number of examination on the course of education the better the school system serve the aims of education and the better it could provide for further development of the child in the future. And, it is argued that the present matriculation system of Hong Kong should be abolished. This point is especially obvious when we realize that examination should be qualifying rather than selective, because the latter inevitably leads to examination oriented teaching and learning and bound to produce large number of losers. The Hong Kong matriculation examinations is again an example. With the dissolution of the matriculation system, the controversial of the restructure of higher educational system would be easily settled.