1997．第12卷第1期（Vol. 12 No. 1）．pp. 6072
New and Experienced Secondary School Principles : Leadership, Management Difficulties, Confidence, Efficacy, and Satisfaction
Man-Leung KWOK, Sai-Kwong LO, Man-Biu NG, & Yin-Cheong CHENG
The present study aims to investigate the pattern of work life of new and experienced principals in terms of leadership forces. management difficulties, confidence to overcome difficulties, sense of efficacy, and job satisfaction. A total of 152 principals from Hong Kong secondary schools were involved. Results showed that three groups of principals could be identified in terms of length of experience (12 years, 3years and 6 or more years) and strength of leadership. The relationship between the length of experience and strength of leadership was found to be non-linear with the 35-year group being the lowest in leadership. The top ten most difficult issues in school management faced by the principals were identified and discussed. The group effects of principal experience on perceived management difficulties, confidence to overcome the difficulties, sense of self-efficacy and job satisfaction were analysed. The findings suggest three stages of professional growth of secondary school principals, namely, the observing stage, the action stage and the stability stage. Implications are proposed for practice and further study.