Educational Research Journal

Classroom Climate and Student Outcomes in Primary Mathematics

1997.第12卷第1期(Vol. 12 No. 1).pp. 7–20

Classroom Climate and Student Outcomes in Primary Mathematics

Swee-Chiew GOH(吳穗秋)& Barry J. FRASER


This study examined associations between classroom climate and affective and cognitive outcomes among primary mathematics students in Singapore. Also, gender differences in students' achievement, attitudes and perceptions of classroom climate were explored. A random sample of 1,512 boys and girls from government primary schools was used. For the analysis of climate-outcome associations, simple, multiple and canonical correlation analysis and multilevel (hierarchical linear model) analyses were conducted using two units of analysis, namely, the individual student and the class mean. For the analysis of gender differences, multivariate analyses of variance for repeated measures was performed for the two outcome measures and the classroom climate scales. The study led to the validation of a widely-applicable and convenient learning environment questionnaire for future use by researchers and teachers at the primary school level. Overall the different methods of analysis yielded consistent associations between classroom climate and student outcomes. Gender differences were detected in mathematics achievement, in favour of boys, but girls generally viewed their classroom climate more favourably than the boys did.