1996．第11卷第2期（Vol. 11 No. 2）．pp. 157164
Stages of Expatriate Involvement in Educational Development: Colonialism, Irrelevance, or What?
To what extent can concepts to do with teaching and learning be transported across cultures, particularly to Confucian-heritage cultures that already have strong versions of these concepts? Expatriate teachers may operate at three levels in coming to grips with this issue, depending on their conception of teaching, and on the focus of their teaching efforts. At Level 1, they focus on differences that are highlighted by implicit expectations that students will conform to their own exotic norms of student behaviour. At Level 2, they focus on the given system, seeing teaching as culturally determined and successful teaching as requiring a deep knowledge of that system. At Level 3, they focus on the principles of teaching and learning that apply across systems, but a knowledge of the given system is required in order to give those principles effective local substance. These levels correspond to the pseudo-etic, emic, and etic approaches, respectively, distinguished by cross-cultural psychologists.