1989．第17卷第1期（Vol. 17 No. 1）．pp. 5971
Expert-Novice Difference in the Solving of a Basic Problem in Chemistry
Rex M. HEYWORTH（夏偉富）
Research into the solving of basic problems for a topic in high school chemistry is reported. Investigations focused on the strategies used and how problems are mentally represented by expert and novice students. All solvers were found to have a repertoire of strategies; the one used depends on the familiarity of a problem. Experts mainly employed problem recognition plus a working forwards strategy, accessing a general procedure already available in long-term memory. Novices attempted a means-ends analysis to create a solution procedure; if unsuccessful, they switched to a blind working forwards (groping forwards) strategy. Experts have three successive representations of problems: An initial representation involving a keyword or images of apparatus, an abstract representation capable of qualitatively simulating a solution, and a mathematical representation. Novices sometimes had incomplete abstract representations. Points of comparison are made with problem solving in physics, the predominant domain of research.