Education Journal



如何在歸因研究中量度成功及失敗的原因

1989.第17卷第1期(Vol. 17 No. 1).pp. 11–16

 

如何在歸因研究中量度成功及失敗的原因

Measurement of the Causes for Success and Failure in Attribution Studies

侯傑泰(KIT-Tai HAU)

摘要

本文討論一些與量度成就歸因有關的問題。各種問題形式中,單極量表法的心理測量特性最為卓越;不過,發揮性訪問卻能找出某一情境下的重要歸因。故亦甚為有用。本文亦強調研究者不應局限於四個傳統原因(即:能力、努力、困難、運氣)。個別原因的度向意義會隨悄境而變,故須在問卷中加插度向問題,或以統計方法加以補足。此外,歸因複雜性研究顯示內外源可能需要各自獨立量度。文章指出不同量度方法各有利弊,全面了解每種方法的優劣,有助正確的選擇。

Abstract

Various issues related to the measurement of achievement attribution are discussed. Among the different question formats, the unipolar rating method seems to display the best psychometric properties. However, unstructured open-ended interview is also useful in eliciting the important causes pertinent to a particular achievement situation. It is also stressed that researchers should not limit themselves to the four classic causes (i.e. effort, ability, difficulty, luck). The dimensional meaning of individual cause is situational specific, and should be established by including dimensional questions in the questionnaire, or by using statistical methods in the analysis. Studies in attributional complexity suggest a separate measurement of internality and extenerality. However, the issue is still unresolved. It can be seen that different methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. The proper selection of method depends on one's purpose, and on the understanding of the merits and demerits of the method chosen.