Journal of Basic Education



「一生之計在於勤」探源及相關研究

2009.第18卷第1期(Vol. 18 No. 1).pp. 69–86
 

「一生之計在於勤」探源及相關研究

The Origin and Related Research of the Saying “A Good Life Lies in Being Diligent”

蔡根祥(Ken-Hsiang TSAI)

摘要

在臺灣,國中國文課本選入李文炤(1672−1735)的〈勤訓〉一文,文中有說「邵子曰:『一日之計在於晨,一歲之計在於春,一生之計在於勤。』」據查邵雍並未有如此說過,尤其是「一生之計在於勤」一句,為本文之關鍵語句,然而不見於邵雍著作、文集之中。然則李文炤所引文句,必有錯誤。教科書的教師手冊、坊間參考書,未見有所檢討,而網路上所提供的資料,甚至是錯誤的結論。既然,則「一生之計在於勤」之句,究竟出於何人之言,何時之語?這正是本論文的核心論題,而且可以得到明確的結論。又就教學而論,我國歷代文獻中強調「勤奮、努力」的名言非常多,何以李文炤獨選邵雍之言以為引重呢?其實,這也跟李文炤的學術背景有關,因為他本身也是一位朱熹學派的理學家與經學家,因此,他只引用邵雍的話來發揮,是可以理解的。

關鍵詞:李文炤;勤訓;邵雍;一生之計在於勤;女論語

Abstract

In Taiwan, the Mandarin textbook of junior middle school selects Li Wenzhao’s article “The Exhortation of Diligence” as one of its reading texts. In this article, it is written that “Shao Yong said: ‘A good day depends on a right start in the morning, a good year lies in a right start in spring, and a good life lies in being diligent.’” However, documentary evidence shows that Shao Yong did not write any sayings exactly like that, especially the key sentence “a good life lies in being diligent.” Li Wenzhao must have been mistaken in quoting these sentences, which could well have been the origin of all the quotation mistakes that followed in a variety of teachers’ manuals, reference books, and even on the web since then. So what is the origin of this key saying? That is the core issue in this article. As to the problem of why Li Wenzhao referred to Shao Yong and not to other scholars, this paper argues that it might have been due to the former’s academic background, which was linked to Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism of the Song Dynasty, and so quoting Shao Yong was understandable.