Journal of Basic Education



臺灣一所小學學生朝會之實踐:「結構-行動」之關係探究

2008.第17卷第2期(Vol. 17 No. 2).pp. 15–41
 

臺灣一所小學學生朝會之實踐:「結構-行動」之關係探究

Practices of School Assembly in a Taiwan Primary School: Between Structure and Agency

陳幸仁(Hsin-Jen CHEN)

摘要

學生朝會這個看似習以為常的學校例行活動,到底隱含什麼結構特性和如何約制教師的行動?教師是否有因應的行動策略應付這些約制?學生如何在朝會中被教師和行政人員規訓?本文首先對學生朝會的意義和功能作初步探討,再以Anthony Giddens倡論的結構化理論中時間、空間、資源和規則四個結構層面作分析架構,分析教師所受到的結構約制及其可能發展的因應行動策略。並以Michel Foucault提出的規訓概念,探究教師和行政人員透過增強策略強化學生規訓行為。研究結果發現行政人員、教師與學生之間形成一種「支配-服從」的關係。教師本身的反思性對於結構約制的突破非常有限,發展出來的行動因應策略大抵傾向消極因應。要改變學生朝會的形式,可透過教師會匯集意見,凝聚共識,對結構約制的困境才有轉化的可能。

關鍵詞:結構/行動;例行活動;規訓

Abstract

What are the structural characteristics of the daily school assembly and does the routine of school assembly constrain teachers’ actions? Do teachers have the necessary strategies to cope with such constraints? How are students disciplined by teachers and administrators through the assembly? This study explores the relationship between structural constraints and individual enabling strategies involved in the daily school assembly routine. First, the research investigates the meaning and function of school assembly. Second, based on Anthony Giddens’ theories of structural analysis, and the four structural dimensions of time, space, resources and rules, it examines how the school assembly imposes structural constraints on teachers and teachers’ potential strategies for action. Using the discipline concepts suggested by Michel Foucault, the article explores how teachers and administrators discipline students through strengthening various strategies. Results show that teachers, administrators and students form a kind of “manipulate–obey” relationship. Teachers have a limited ability to reflect on how to break through structural constraints, so consequent action and strategies tend to be pessimistic in nature. To change the form of school assembly and break through the dilemma of structural constraints, integrating the opinions of teachers and developing among them a consensus would be necessary.