Journal of Basic Education



學校合併面臨左右兩難──美國與台灣的經驗

2004.第13卷第2期(Vol. 13 No. 2).pp. 143–162
 

學校合併面臨左右兩難──美國與台灣的經驗

Ongoing Dilemmas of School Size: Experience of Consolidation in America and Taiwan

何肯忞(Ken-Ming HO)

摘要

30年代美國教育改革最戲劇性的改變是學校合併,在1938至1998年間美國總共裁併了90%的學區。合併步伐自70年代以後顯著降緩,一些研究報告如馬休計劃(Matthew project)逐漸強調小型學校才是好的學校,尤其對鄉村地區的貧窮學生來說。這種新觀點和過去北美教育專家致力於學校合併,創設更大且現代化的學校的現象非常不同。在為節省成本而推動小型學校合併與為追求教學效果和教育公平而維持小型學校之矛盾下,一股涉及成本效率性、教學效果性與教育公平性之爭辯的趨勢,使得小校合併遭遇更艱鉅的挑戰,如何抉擇實在左右兩難。

Abstract

Under heavy pressure to cut costs and to raise student performance, school consolidation represents the most dramatic change in the education reform movement in the United States. Almost about 90 percent of school districts have been eliminated through consolidation since 1938 in the States. The pace of consolidation has slowed from 1970. Recent reports such as the “Matthew project” reinforce the view that small schools are good schools. The new appreciation of small schools must seem like a revolution to educators and policy-makers who have devoted careers to building larger and modern schools throughout the States and Canada. Common justifications for building larger schools and closing smaller ones are the statewide concern for equity, effectiveness and efficiency in all school districts. These issues lead to ongoing dilemmas in the debate on optimal school size.