Journal of Basic Education



Help! Two Case Studies of Two Primary School Students Helping Each Other in Class

2000.第9卷第2期/第10卷第1期(Vol. 9 No. 2/Vol. 10 No. 1).pp. 53–76
 

Help! Two Case Studies of Two Primary School Students Helping Each Other in Class

幫幫我!兩名小學生在課堂內兩種互助行為的個案分析

Ming-Ming CHIU & Wing-Yin WU(趙明明、胡永言)

Abstract

Two case studies contrast two primary six students helping each other in a tutoring episode and in a collaborative problem-solving episode.

The tutoring episode showed six types of student help, two ways of adapting to the help receiver, and the impact of help on autonomy. The types of help included: a) encouraging the receiver to start working, b) identifying goals, c) identifying solution procedures, d) identifying their conditions of use, e) explaining the procedures and f) evaluating the receiver's work. The helper adapted to the receiver's progress by changing help strategies and shifting responsibilities between them. However, the extensive help given to the receiver compromised his autonomy, reduced his contribution and alienated him from the solution.

The collaborative problem-solving episode highlighted the importance of mutual contributions. Unlike the first episode, both students contributed to the solution. Both students collaborated to make errors as well as corrections. Moreover, their roles switched between helper and receiver. Lastly, they shared jokes and showed solidarity.

摘要

在研究中,我們挑選了兩個迥然不同的個案作分析,並比較了兩個個案中兩名小六學生的互助行為。在個案一中,主要由其中一位同學指導另一位;兩位同學在個案二中則傾向合作解決問題。

以指導行為為主的個案揭示了六種學生幫助他人的行為、兩種幫助他人者因應受幫助者進度而作出的回應、及幫助行為對自主的影響。六種學生的幫助行為包括:一、鼓勵受幫助者開始工作;二、 釐定目標;三、釐定解決問題的步驟;四、釐定何種情況下用何種方法;五、解釋有關步驟;六、評估受幫助者所做出的結果。指導一方因應受幫助者進度而作出的回應則包括改變幫助策略及增減彼此的責任。可是,以上所述的大量幫助行為卻會損害受幫助者的自主,減少其可作出的貢獻,並且令其難以獲得解決問題的成就感。

合作解決問題的個案則突顯了互助、幽默及團結的重要。不同於個案一,兩名學生在個案二中都有機會作出貢獻。在解難過程中,他們相互影響而致犯錯,但同時亦會一起修正錯誤。可以說,他們兩人輪流扮演了幫助他人者及接受幫助者兩個角色。總而言之,他們不但在合作過程中分享樂趣,並且顯得更為團結。