Journal of Basic Education



A Cultural Constructivist Approach to the Management of Change in Underachieving or Problem Pupils

1994.第5卷第1期(Vol. 5 No. 1).pp. 43–50
 

A Cultural Constructivist Approach to the Management of Change in Underachieving or Problem Pupils

文化構造模式應用於低學習水平及有問題的學生之管理方面

Peter BODYCOTT

Abstract

A version of this article was presented at the Eighth Annual International Conference of the Educational Research Association of Singapore, in November, 1994. The cultural constructivist perspective presented was first developed for use with tertiary students and as reported in this article adapted for use with primary school pupils. The context of use included observations of a specialist primary school support teacher whose designation included the provision of support to underachieving and behavioral problem pupils. A cultural constructivist approach has been found to an extremely valuable tool for teachers concerned with developing management programs based upon the individual needs of children. The approach required the teacher to look beyond the resultant learning or behavior and examine, from the pupil's perspective, the contexts and causes from which pupil understandings and behavior have been developed. The approach further requires of the teachers to approach support with a constructivist learning ideology, features which include: the belief that socio-cultural contexts influence pupil understanding; that individual pupils are in control of their learning and behavior; and as such pupils must be supported in taking responsibility for any change. The elicitation of socio-cultural influenced, personal constructed views of language, teaching, learning and significant individuals within the individual's educative cultures, required techniques which facilitate not only the elicitation process but which maintain focus attention on the pupil at all times. Thus avoiding the teacher imposing their own interpretations or taking control away from the pupil. This article documents such a support process and cites the implications such support has for educators at all levels of instruction.

摘要

文化構造模式原先為專上學生而設;在本文中,作者將這模式應用在小學學生上。研究內容包括觀察小學的輔導教師,這些教師的職責是設計方法以輔助低學習能力及行為上有問題的學生。研究發現,在教師為兒童個別的需要而發展輔導計劃這一方面,文化構造模式會是一種極為有效的工具,文化構造模式除了要來求老師要注意學生最終的學習表現或行為外,還要求教師從學生角度,去探查學生在理解上及行為表現上的內容及成因。此外,這模式更要求老師要以建設性學習意向去尋求支援,這意向的內容包括以下的信念:一、社會-文化特質會影響學生理解能力;二、個別學生能自我控制學習及行為;三、因此,我們必須給予在轉變當中承擔責任的學生加以支持.。對於社會文化影響、個人構造觀點中的語言、教學、學習,與個人文化的重要人物的引發,要求一此促進引發過程的技街,同時也要求把注意集中在學生身上。這樣便可防止教師將自已的見解加諸在學生身上;或剝奪學生的自我控制權,本文驗證這種支援過程,更提出這種支援在教授工作上給予各階層教育工作的含義。