Asian Journal of Counselling



適得其反:論消減與塑形

2003.第10卷第2期(Vol. 10 No. 2).pp. 215–233
 

適得其反:論消減與塑形

What You Get Is Not What You Want: Extinction and Shaping

蕭寧波(Ling-Po SHIU)

摘要

本文以三個個案為引子,引用行為學派理論中的塑形和消減兩種程序,討論為甚麼有時我們盡力去減少行為,但結果行為反而變本加厲。本文先指出這兩種目的分別在於增強和減弱行為的方法之間的微妙關係,再以討論和舉例的方式,加上在職老師的一些經驗分享,檢討這兩種程序在學校的應用,並印證理論與實踐的結合。

Abstract

This article begins with three cases in which two parents and a teacher tried to reduce some naughty behavior made by their children and student, respectively; but, to their dismay, the behavior worsened. The behavioral methods of shaping and extinction are used to explain why that could happen. Analysis of the methods reveals that the two methods, although designed to increase and decrease behavior, respectively, are also intertwined. Discussion, illustrative examples, and teachers’ experience sharing are used to show how shaping and extinction can be used effectively in schools.