Asian Journal of Counselling



重建台灣/華人諮商倫理的文化思考

2003.第10卷第1期(Vol. 10 No. 1).pp. 11–32
 

重建台灣/華人諮商倫理的文化思考

Reconstructing the Ethics of Counseling in the Taiwan/Ethnic Chinese Social Context

陳秉華(Ping-Hwa CHEN)

摘要

台灣諮商文獻常指出實務工作者常常難於在行為上做到維護案主的隱私與權利。本文認為這種「知行不合一」的現象,其實反映了更深層的中西不同社會文化的價值體系。作者以台灣對「諮商師」的稱呼,引申出背後儒家文化的「師道」精神,以及對諮商者的社會角色期待。當代華人社會行為科學家/心理學家指出華人文化對社會關係的重視,這與西方強調個人主義的社會有很大的文化差異。西方諮商學者也指出諮商者要對案主所來自文化的價值觀有敏銳的觸覺並予以尊重,這是進行多元文化諮商的倫理。作者關切把西方文化所發展出的諮商專業應用於台灣社會的適切性問題,提出台灣的諮商倫理要建立在兼顧「社會關係」與「個人發展」的社會倫理基礎上。本文繼而分別就當事人的權益、案主與諮商者的價值觀、諮商的機密性、案主知後同意的權利、對於未成年當事人在學校的諮商、雙重關係與社交關係,以及諮商者的專業責任等方面重新思考,並與西方的諮商倫理互相對照,作為重建華人文化諮商倫理的基礎。

Abstract

Counseling literature in Taiwan pointed out that counselors often fail to adhere to the code of conduct of protecting the privacy and rights of their clients. This “not practicing what one preaches” phenomenon reflects an underlying issue of the differences between the value systems of the Chinese and Western societies and cultures. The Chinese titles for counselors in Taiwan had a rich social implication under the Confucius culture. The author reviewed those contemporary Chinese scholars’ concept of the relationship between the self and others, and concluded that Chinese culture emphasizes “social relations,” in contrast to the emphasis on individualism in Western society. Nowadays, Western scholars of counseling also strongly suggest the need of counselors to be sensitive about and respectful to the value system of the culture that the client comes from. In this regard, the appropriateness of applying Western practices of counseling developed out of the individualistic culture into Taiwanese/Chinese society is in question. The author proposes that when constructing the ethical code of counseling, both “social relations” and “personal development” must be taken into account. Ethical issues of counseling on client’s rights, values of the client and the counselors, confidentiality, informed consent, counseling young school students, dual relationship and social relationship, and professional responsibility were then discussed and compared with Western ethical codes.